June 29, 2015 Day 160 of the Seventh Year - History

June 29, 2015 Day 160 of the Seventh Year - History

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President Barack Obama talks with President Dilma Rousseff of Brazil as they tour the Martin Luther King Memorial in Washington, D.C., June 29, 2015.

2:05 PM THE PRESIDENT signs H.R. 2146 Defending Public Safety Employees’ Retirement Act and H.R. 1295 Trade Preferences Extension Act of 2015
East Room

6:00PM THE PRESIDENT hosts a working dinner with President Rousseff of Brazil; the VICE PRESIDENT also attends
Blue Room

A collection of our most popular revival resources

Invitation to a Day of Prayer and Fasting!

July 3, 2021 was designated as one of four special days of Prayer and Fasting throughout the year. If ever there was a time in history that we should be urgently praying for a heart like Jesus, it is now. Our world is in crisis. Tension, anger, pain, and suffering abound on all sides. People are dying without knowing the Savior’s love. We need His love and the Holy Spirit’s power to share the good news of salvation with others, preparing them for Jesus’ soon return. This day will be dedicated to praying for a heart like Jesus that we may reach the world in need.

Revival NOW!

Revival NOW! is a definite "must read" for anyone hungering for revival! This popular booklet, compiled by Dan Augsburger, has already printed over 15,000 copies and has been shared worldwide. Topics covered include: God’s Wonderful Gift of Pardon and Righteousness, Being Transformed, Adopting Christ’s Lifestyle Of Obedience and Service, What Was/Is The Condition Of God’s People, God’s Remedy And The Pathway To Revival, and much more! (All 64 pages are pure gold!)

Revelation for Kids with Gabrielle

Looking for trustworthy Adventist tools to teach your children about Revelation. Follow Gabrielle on her journey. Learn a little more from the Bible every day through videos, games, and singing. Look, listen and join in! And share with your young friends.

History of the Death Penalty

As far back as the Ancient Laws of China, the death penalty has been established as a punishment for crimes. In the 18th Century BC, the Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon codified the death penalty for twenty five different crimes, although murder was not one of them. The first death sentence historically recorded occurred in 16th Century BC Egypt where the wrongdoer, a member of nobility, was accused of magic, and ordered to take his own life. During this period non-nobility was usually killed with an ax.

In the 14th Century BC, the Hittite Code also prescribed the death penalty. The 7th Century BC Draconian Code of Athens made death the penalty for every crime committed. In the 5th Century BC, the Roman Law of the Twelve Tablets codified the death penalty. Again, the death penalty was different for nobility, freemen and slaves and was punishment for crimes such as the publication of libels and insulting songs, the cutting or grazing of crops planted by a farmer, the burning [of] a house or a stack of corn near a house, cheating by a patron of his client, perjury, making disturbances at night in the city, willful murder of a freeman or a parent, or theft by a slave. Death was often cruel and included crucifixion, drowning at sea, burial alive, beating to death, and impalement (often used by Nero). The Romans had a curious punishment for parricides (murder of a parent): the condemned was submersed in water in a sack, which also contained a dog, a rooster, a viper and an ape. [1] The most notorious death execution in BC was about 399 BC when the Greek philosopher Socrates was required to drink poison for heresy and corruption of youth. [2]

Mosaic Law codified many capital crimes. In fact, there is evidence that Jews used many different techniques including stoning, hanging, beheading, crucifixion (copied from the Romans), throwing the criminal from a rock, and sawing asunder. The most infamous execution of history occurred approximately 29 AD with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ outside Jerusalem. About 300 years later, the Emperor Constantine, after converting to Christianity, abolished crucifixion and other cruel death penalties in the Roman Empire. In 438, the Code of Theodosius made more than 80 crimes punishable by death. [3]

Britain influenced the colonies more than any other country and has a long history of punishment by death. About 450 BC, the death penalty was often enforced by throwing the condemned into a quagmire. By the 10th Century, hanging from gallows was the most frequent execution method. William the Conqueror opposed taking life except in war, and ordered no person to be hanged or executed for any offense. However, he allowed criminals to be mutilated for their crimes. During the middle ages, capital punishment was accompanied by torture. Most barons had a drowning pit as well as gallows and they were used for major as well as minor crimes. For example, in 1279, two hundred and eighty nine Jews were hanged for clipping coin. Under Edward I, two gatekeepers were killed because the city gate had not been closed in time to prevent the escape of an accused murderer. Burning was the punishment for women’s high treason and men were hanged, drawn and quartered. Beheading was generally accepted for the upper classes. One could be burned for marrying a Jew. Pressing became the penalty for those who would not confess to their crimes. The executioner placed heavy weights on the victim’s chest. On the first day he gave the victim a small quantity of bread, on the second day a small drink of bad water, and so on until he confessed or died. Under the reign of Henry VIII, the numbers of those put to death are estimated as high as 72,000. Boiling to death was another penalty approved in 1531, and there are records to show some people boiled for up to two hours before death took them. When a woman was burned, the executioner tied a rope around her neck when she was tied to the stake. When the flames reached her she could be strangled from outside the ring of fire. However, this often failed and many were literally burnt alive. [4]

In Britain, the number of capital offenses continually increased until the 1700’s when two hundred and twenty-two crimes were punishable by death. These included stealing from a house in the amount of forty shillings, stealing from a shop the value of five shillings, robbing a rabbit warren, cutting down a tree, and counterfeiting tax stamps. However, juries tended not to convict when the penalty was great and the crime was not. Reforms began to take place. In 1823, five laws passed, exempting about a hundred crimes from the death [penalty]. Between 1832 and 1837, many capital offenses were swept away. In 1840, there was a failed attempt to abolish all capital punishment. Through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, more and more capital punishments were abolished, not only in Britain, but also all across Europe, until today only a few European countries retain the death penalty. [5]

The first recorded execution in the English American colonies was in 1608 when officials executed George Kendall of Virginia for supposedly plotting to betray the British to the Spanish. In 1612, Virginia’s governor, Sir Thomas Dale, implemented the Divine, Moral, and Martial Laws that made death the penalty for even minor offenses such as stealing grapes, killing chickens, killing dogs or horses without permission, or trading with Indians. Seven years later these laws were softened because Virginia feared that no one would settle there. [6]

In 1622, the first legal execution of a criminal, Daniel Frank, occurred in Virginia for the crime of theft. [7] Some colonies were very strict in their use of the death penalty, while others were less so. In Massachusetts Bay Colony the first execution was in 1630, but the earliest capital statutes do not occur until later. Under the Capital Laws of New-England that went into effect between 1636-1647 the death penalty was meted out for pre-meditated murder, sodomy, witchcraft, adultery, idolatry, blasphemy, assault in anger, rape, statutory rape, manstealing, perjury in a capital trial, rebellion, manslaughter, poisoning and bestiality. Early laws were accompanied by a scripture from the Old Testament. By 1780, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts only recognized seven capital crimes: murder, sodomy, burglary, buggery, arson, rape, and treason. [8]

The New York colony instituted the so-called Duke’s Laws of 1665. This directed the death penalty for denial of the true God, pre-meditated murder, killing someone who had no weapon of defense, killing by lying in wait or by poisoning, sodomy, buggery, kidnapping, perjury in a capital trial, traitorous denial of the king’s rights or raising arms to resist his authority, conspiracy to invade towns or forts in the colony and striking one’s mother or father (upon complaint of both). The two colonies that were more lenient concerning capital punishment were South Jersey and Pennsylvania. In South Jersey there was no death penalty for any crime and there were only two crimes, murder and treason, punishable by death. [9]

However under the direction of the Crown, harsher penal codes were execution there until 1691 [sic]. In Pennsylvania, William Penn’s Great Act (1682) made passed in the colonies [sic]. By 1776, most of the colonies had roughly comparable death statutes which covered arson, piracy, treason, murder, sodomy, burglary, robbery, rape, horse-stealing, slave rebellion, and often counterfeiting. Hanging was the usual sentence. Rhode Island was probably the only colony which decreased the number of capital crimes in the late 1700’s.

Some states were more severe. For example, by 1837, North Carolina required death for the crimes of murder, rape, statutory rape, slave-stealing, stealing bank notes, highway robbery, burglary, arson, castration, buggery, sodomy, bestiality, dueling where death occurs, hiding a slave with intent to free him, taking a free Negro out of state to sell him, bigamy, inciting slaves to rebel, circulating seditious literature among slaves, accessory to murder, robbery, burglary, arson, or mayhem and others. However, North Carolina did not have a state penitentiary and, many said, no suitable alternative to capital punishment. [10]

The first reforms of the death penalty occurred between 1776-1800. Thomas Jefferson and four others, authorized to undertake a complete revision of Virginia’s laws, proposed a law that recommended the death penalty for only treason and murder. After a stormy debate the legislature defeated the bill by one vote. The writing of European theorists such as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Bentham had a great effect on American intellectuals, as did English Quaker prison reformers John Bellers and John Howard. [11]

On Crimes and Punishment, published in English in 1767 by the Italian jurist Cesare Beccaria, whose exposition on abolishing capital punishment was the most influential of the time, had an especially strong impact. He theorized that there was no justification for the taking of life by the state. He said that the death penalty was “a war of a whole nation against a citizen, whose destruction they consider as necessary, or useful to the general good.” He asked the question what if it can be shown not to be necessary or useful? His essay conceded that the only time a death was necessary was when only one’s death could insure the security of a nation — which would be rare and only in cases of absolute anarchy or when a nation was on the verge of losing its liberty. He said that the history of using punishment by death (e.g., the Romans, 20 years of Czaress Elizabeth) had not prevented determined men from injuring society and that death was only a “momentary spectacle, and therefore a less efficacious method of deterring others, than the continued example of a man deprived of his liberty….” [12]

Organizations were formed in different colonies for the abolition of the death penalty and to relieve poor prison conditions. Dr. Benjamin Rush, a renowned Philadelphia citizen, proposed the complete abolition of capital punishment. William Bradford, Attorney General of Pennsylvania, was ordered to investigate capital punishment. In 1793 he published An Enquiry How Far the Punishment of Death is Necessary in Pennsylvania. He strongly insisted that the death penalty be retained, but admitted it was useless in preventing certain crimes. In fact, he said the death penalty made convictions harder to obtain, because in Pennsylvania, and indeed in all states, the death penalty was mandatory and juries would often not return a guilty verdict because of this fact. In response, in 1794, the Pennsylvania legislature abolished capital punishment for all crimes except murder “in the first degree,” the first time murder had been broken down into “degrees.” In New York, in 1796, the legislature authorized construction of the state’s first penitentiary, abolished whipping, and reduced the number of capital offenses from thirteen to two. Virginia and Kentucky passed similar reform bills. Four more states reduced its capital crimes: Vermont in 1797, to three Maryland in 1810, to four New Hampshire in 1812, to two and Ohio in 1815, to two. Each of these states built state penitentiaries. A few states went the opposite direction. Rhode Island restored the death penalty for rape and arson Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Connecticut raised death crimes from six to ten, including sodomy, maiming, robbery, and forgery. Many southern states made more crimes capital, especially for slaves. [13]

The first great reform era occurred between 1833-1853. Public executions were attacked as cruel. Sometimes tens of thousands of eager viewers would show up to view hangings local merchants would sell souvenirs and alcohol. Fighting and pushing would often break out as people jockeyed for the best view of the hanging or the corpse! Onlookers often cursed the widow or the victim and would try to tear down the scaffold or the rope for keepsakes. Violence and drunkenness often ruled towns far into the night after “justice had been served.” Many states enacted laws providing private hangings. Rhode Island (1833), Pennsylvania (1834), New York (1835), Massachusetts (1835), and New Jersey (1835) all abolished public hangings. By 1849, fifteen states were holding private hangings. This move was opposed by many death penalty abolitionists who thought public executions would eventually cause people to cry out against execution itself. For example, in 1835, Maine enacted what was in effect a moratorium on capital punishment after over ten thousand people who watched a hanging had to be restrained by police after they became unruly and began fighting. All felons sentenced to death would have to remain in prison at hard labor and could not be executed until one year had elapsed and then only on the governor’s order. No governor ordered an execution under the “Maine Law” for twenty-seven years. Though many states argued the merits of the death penalty, no state went as far as Maine. The most influential reformers were the clergy. Ironically, the small but powerful group which opposed the abolitionists were also clergy. They were, almost to a person, members of the Calvinist clergy, especially the Congregationalists and Presbyterians who could be called the religious establishment of the time. They were led by George Cheever. [14]

Finally, in 1846, Michigan became the first state to abolish the death penalty (except for treason against the state), mostly because it had no long tradition of capital punishment (there had been no hanging since 1830, before statehood) and because frontier Michigan had few established religious groups to oppose it as was the case in the east. In 1852, Rhode Island abolished the death penalty led by Unitarians, Universalists, and especially Quakers. In the same year, Massachusetts limited its death penalty to first-degree murder. In 1853, Wisconsin abolished the death penalty after a gruesome execution in which the victim struggled for five minutes at the end of the rope, and a full eighteen minutes passed before his heart finally quit. [15]

During the last half of the century the death penalty abolition movement ground to a half, with many members moving into the slavery abolition movement. At the same time, states began to pass laws against mandatory death sentences. Legislators in eighteen states shifted from mandatory to discretionary capital punishment by 1895, not to save lives, but to try to increase convictions and executions of murderers. Still, abolitionists gained a few victories. Maine abolished the death penalty, restored it, and then abolished it again between 1876-1887. Iowa abolished the death penalty for six years. Kansas passed a “Maine Law” in 1872 which operated as de facto abolition. [16]

Electrocution as a method of execution came onto the scene in an unlikely manner. Edison Company with its DC (direct current) electrical systems began attacking Westinghouse Company and its AC (alternating current) electrical systems as they were pressing for nationwide electrification with alternating current. To show how dangerous AC could be, Edison Company began public demonstrations by electrocuting animals. People reasoned that if electricity could kill animals, it could kill people. In 1888, New York approved the dismantling of its gallows and the building of the nation’s first electric chair. It held its first victim, William Kemmler, in 1890, and even though the first electrocution was clumsy at best, other states soon followed the lead. [17]

The Second Great Reform era was 1895-1917. In 1897, U.S. Congress passed a bill reducing the number of federal death crimes. In 1907, Kansas took the “Maine Law” a step further and abolished all death penalties. Between 1911 and 1917, eight more states abolished capital punishment (Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Oregon, Arizona, Missouri and Tennessee — the latter in all cases but rape). Votes in other states came close to ending the death penalty.

However, between 1917 and 1955, the death penalty abolition movement again slowed. Washington, Arizona, and Oregon in 1919-20 reinstated the death penalty. In 1924, the first execution by cyanide gas took place in Nevada, when Tong war gang murderer Gee Jon became its first victim. The state wanted to secretly pump cyanide gas into Jon’s cell at night while he was asleep as a more humanitarian way of carrying out the penalty, but, technical difficulties prohibited this and a special “gas chamber” was hastily built. Other concerns developed when less “civilized” methods of execution failed. In 1930, Mrs. Eva Dugan became the first female to be executed by Arizona. The execution was botched when the hangman misjudged the drop and Mrs. Dugan’s head was ripped from her body. More states converted to electric chairs and gas chambers. During this period of time, abolitionist organizations sprang up all across the country, but they had little effect. There were a number of stormy protests against the execution of certain convicted felons (e.g., Julius and Ethel Rosenberg), but little opposition against the death penalty itself. In fact, during the anti-Communist period with all its fears and hysteria, Texas Governor Allan Shivers seriously suggested that capital punishment be the penalty for membership in the Communist Party. [18]

The movement against capital punishment revived again between 1955 and 1972.

England and Canada completed exhaustive studies which were largely critical of the death penalty and these were widely circulated in the U.S. Death row criminals gave their own moving accounts of capital punishment in books and film. Convicted kidnapper Caryl Chessman published Cell 2455 Death Row and Trial by Ordeal. Barbara Graham’s story was utilized in book and film with I Want to Live! after her execution. Television shows were broadcast on the death penalty. Hawaii and Alaska ended capital punishment in 1957, and Delaware did so the next year. Controversy over the death penalty gripped the nation, forcing politicians to take sides. Delaware restored the death penalty in 1961. Michigan abolished capital punishment for treason in 1963. Voters in 1964 abolished the death penalty in Oregon. In 1965 Iowa, New York, West Virginia, and Vermont ended the death penalty. New Mexico abolished the death penalty in 1969. [19]

Trying to end capital punishment state-by-state was difficult at best, so death penalty abolitionists turned much of their efforts to the courts. They finally succeeded on June 29, 1972 in the case Furman v. Georgia. In nine separate opinions, but with a majority of 5-4, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the way capital punishment laws were written, including discriminatory sentencing guidelines, capital punishment was cruel and unusual and violated the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. This effectively ended capital punishment in the United States. Advocates of capital punishment began proposing new capital statutes which they believed would end discrimination in capital sentencing, therefore satisfying a majority of the Court. By early 1975, thirty states had again passed death penalty laws and nearly two hundred prisoners were on death row. In Gregg v. Georgia (1976), the Supreme Court upheld Georgia’s newly passed death penalty and said that the death penalty was not always cruel and unusual punishment. Death row executions could again begin. Another form of execution was soon found. Oklahoma passed the first death by lethal injection law, based on economics as much as humanitarian reasons. The old electric chair that had not been used in eleven years would require expensive repairs. Estimates of over $200,000 were given to build a gas chamber, while lethal injection would cost no more than ten to fifteen dollars “per event.” [20]

The controversy over the death penalty continues today. There is a strong movement against lawlessness propelled by citizens’ fears for their security. Politicians at the national and state levels are taking the floor of legislatures and calling for more frequent death penalties, death penalties penalty [sic] for more crimes, and longer prison sentences. Those opposing these moves counter by arguing that tougher sentences do not slow crime and that crime is little or no worse than in the past. In fact, FBI statistics show murders are now up. (For example 9.3 persons per 100,000 population were murdered in 1973 and 9.4 persons per 100,000 were murdered in 1992). The battle lines are still drawn and the combat will probably always be fought. [21]

A number of important capital punishment decisions have been made by the Supreme Court. The following is a list of the more important ones along with their legal citations:

Wilkerson v. Utah 99 U.S. 130 (1878) — Court upheld execution by firing squad, but said that other types of torture such as “drawing and quartering, embowelling alive, beheading, public dissection, and burring alive and all other in the same line of…cruelty, are forbidden.”

Weems v. U.S. 217 U.S. 349 (1910) — Court held that what constitutes cruel and unusual punishment had not been decided, but that it should not be confined to the “forms of evil” that framers of the Bill of Rights had experienced. Therefore, “cruel and unusual” definitions are subject to changing interpretations.

Louisiana ex rel. Francis v. Resweber 329 U.S. 459 (1947) — On May 3, 1946, convicted seventeen year old felon Willie Francis was placed in the electric chair and the switch was thrown. Due to faulty equipment, he survived (even though he was severely shocked), was removed from the chair and returned to his cell. A new death warrant was issued six days later. The Court ruled 5-4 that it was not “cruel and unusual” to finish carrying out the sentence since the state acted in good faith in the first attempt. “The cruelty against which the Constitution protects a convicted man is cruelty inherent in the method of punishment,” said the Court, “not the necessary suffering involved in any method employed to extinguish life humanely.” He was then executed.

Tropp v. Dulles 356 U.S. 86 (1958) — The Court Ruled that punishment would be considered “cruel and unusual” if it was one of “tormenting severity,” cruel in its excessiveness or unusual in punishment “must draw its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society.”

Furman v. Georgia 408 U.S. 238 (1972) — The Court looking at three cases struck down the death penalty in many states and set up the standard that punishment would be considered “cruel and unusual” if any of the following were present: 1) it was too severe for the crime 2) it was arbitrary (some get the punishment and others do not, without guidelines) 3) it offends society’s sense of justice 4) it was not more effective than a less severe penalty.

Gregg v. Georgia 428 U.S. 153 (1976) — [The] Court upheld Georgia’s newly passed death penalty and said that the death penalty was not always cruel and unusual punishment.

Tison v. Arizona 481 U.S. 137 (1987) — [The] Court upheld Arizona’s death penalty for major participation in a felony with “reckless indifference to human life.”

Thompson v. Oklahoma 108 S. Ct. 2687 (1987) — The Court considered the question of execution of minors under the age of 16 at the time of the murder. The victim was the brother-in-law, who he accused of beating his sister. He and three others beat the victim, shot him twice, cut his throat, chest, and abdomen, chained him to a concrete block and threw the body into a river where it remained for four weeks. Each of the four participants were tried separately and all were sentenced to death. In a 5-3 decision, four Justices ruled that Thompson’s death sentence was cruel and unusual. The fifth, O’Connor, concurred but noted that a state must set a minimum age and held out the possibility that if a state lowers, by statute, the minimum death penalty age below sixteen, she might support it. She stated, “Although, I believe that a national consensus forbidding the execution of any person for a crime committed before the age of 16 very likely does exist, I am reluctant to adopt this conclusion as a matter of constitutional law without better evidence that [sic] we now possess.” States with no minimum age have rushed to specify a statute age.

Penry v. Lynaugh 492 U.S. [sic] (1989) — [The] Court held that persons considered retarded, but legally sane, could receive the death penalty. It was not cruel and unusual punishment under the Eighth Amendment if jurors were given the opportunity to consider mitigating circumstances. In this case, the defendant had the mental age of approximately a six-year old child.

[1] John Laurence, A History of Capital Punishment (N.Y.: The Citadel
Press, 1960), 1-3.

[2] Michael Kronenwetter, Capital Punishment: AReference Handbook (Santa
Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 1993), 71.

[4] Ibid., p.72 Laurence, op.cit., 4-9.

[7] Hugo Adam Bedau, The Death Penalty in America (N.Y.: Oxford
University Press, 1982).

[9] Phillip English Mackey, Voices Against Death: American Opposition to
Capital Punishment, 1787-1975
(N.Y.: Burt Franklin & Co., Inc., 1976),

[12] Cesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishment, trans. Henry Paolucci
(Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963).

Moon Phase Calculator

At the new Moon phase, the Moon is so close to the Sun in the sky that none of the side facing Earth is illuminated (position 1 in illustration). In other words, the Moon is between Earth and Sun. At first quarter, the half-lit Moon is highest in the sky at sunset, then sets about six hours later (3). At full Moon, the Moon is behind Earth in space with respect to the Sun. As the Sun sets, the Moon rises with the side that faces Earth fully exposed to sunlight (5). The Moon has phases because it orbits Earth, which causes the portion we see illuminated to change. The Moon takes 27.3 days to orbit Earth, but the lunar phase cycle (from new Moon to new Moon) is 29.5 days. The Moon spends the extra 2.2 days "catching up" because Earth travels about 45 million miles around the Sun during the time the Moon completes one orbit around Earth.

At the new Moon phase, the Moon is so close to the Sun in the sky that none of the side facing Earth is illuminated (position 1 in illustration). In other words, the Moon is between Earth and Sun. At first quarter, the half-lit Moon is highest in the sky at sunset, then sets about six hours later (3). At full Moon, the Moon is behind Earth in space with respect to the Sun. As the Sun sets, the Moon rises with the side that faces Earth fully exposed to sunlight (5).

You can create a mockup of the relationship between Sun, Earth, and Moon using a bright lamp, a basketball, and a baseball. Mark a spot on the basketball, which represents you as an observer on Earth, then play with various alignments of Earth and Moon in the light of your imaginary Sun.

When is the Harvest Moon?

The full Moon that occurs closest to the autumnal equinox is commonly referred to as the "Harvest Moon," since its bright presence in the night sky allows farmers to work longer into the fall night, reaping the rewards of their spring and summer labors. Because the equinox always falls in late September, it is generally a full Moon in September which is given this name, although in some years the full Moon of early October earns the "harvest" designation.

In fact, each full Moon of the year has its own name, most of which are associated with the weather or agriculture. The most common names used in North America include:

  • January -- Moon after Yule
  • February -- Snow Moon
  • March -- Sap Moon
  • April -- Grass Moon
  • May -- Planting Moon
  • June -- Honey Moon
  • July -- Thunder Moon
  • August -- Grain Moon
  • September -- Fruit Moon (or Harvest Moon)
  • October -- Hunter's Moon (or Harvest Moon)
  • November -- Frosty Moon
  • December -- Moon before Yule

What is a Blue Moon and when is the next one?

Because the time between two full Moons doesn't quite equal a whole month, approximately every three years there are two full Moons in one calendar month. Over the past few decades, the second full Moon has come to be known as a "blue Moon." The next time two full Moons occur in the same month (as seen from the United States) will be July 2015. The most recent "blue Moon" occurred in August 2012.

On average, there's a Blue Moon about every 33 months. Blue Moons are rare because the Moon is full every 29 and a half days, so the timing has to be just right to squeeze two full Moons into a calendar month. The timing has to be really precise to fit two Blue Moons into a single year. It can only happen on either side of February, whose 28-day span is short enough time span to have NO full Moons during the month.

The term "blue Moon" has not always been used this way, however. While the exact origin of the phrase remains unclear, it does in fact refer to a rare blue coloring of the Moon caused by high-altitude dust particles. Most sources credit this unusual event, occurring only "once in a blue moon," as the true progenitor of the colorful phrase.

Why do we always see the same side of the Moon from Earth?

The Moon always shows us the same face because Earth's gravity has slowed down the Moon's rotational speed. The Moon takes as much time to rotate once on its axis as it takes to complete one orbit of Earth. (Both are about 27.3 Earth days.) In other words, the Moon rotates enough each day to compensate for the angle it sweeps out in its orbit around Earth.

Gravitational forces between Earth and the Moon drain the pair of their rotational energy. We see the effect of the Moon in the ocean tides. Likewise, Earth's gravity creates a detectable bulge -- a 60-foot land tide -- on the Moon. Eons from now, the same sides of Earth and Moon may forever face each other, as if dancing hand in hand, though the Sun may balloon into a red giant, destroying Earth and the Moon, before this happens.

When does the young Moon first become visible in the evening sky?

There is no real formula for determining the visibility of the young Moon. It depends on several factors: the angle of the ecliptic (the Moon's path across the sky) with respect to the horizon, the clarity of the sky (how much dust and pollution gunks it up), and even the keenness of the observer's eyesight.

The young Moon becomes visible to the unaided eye much earlier at times when the ecliptic is perpendicular to the horizon, and the Moon pops straight up into the sky. In these cases, it may be possible to see the Moon as little as 24 hours after it was new, although every hour beyond that greatly increases the chances of spotting it. When the ecliptic is at a low angle to the horizon, and the Moon moves almost parallel to the horizon as it rises, the Moon probably doesn't become visible until at least 36 hours past new.

The record for the earliest claimed sighting of the young crescent Moon is around 19 hours, although most experts are suspicious of any claims of times less than about 24 hours.

Grow your vocab the fun way!

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How Did the Months Get Their Names?

How did the months of the year get their names? The months’ names reflect a mix of gods and goddesses, rulers, and numbers. Discover how our calendar developed into what it is today.

How Our Calendar Came to Be

The Ancient Roman Calendar

Today, we follow the Gregorian calendar, but it’s based on the ancient Roman calendar, believed to be invented by Romulus, who served as the first king of Rome around 753 BC .

The Roman calendar, a complicated lunar calendar, had 12 months like our current calendar, but only 10 of the months had formal names. Basically, winter was a “dead” period of time when the government and military wasn’t active, so they only had names for the time period we think of as March through December.

March (Martius) was named for Mars, the god of war, because this was the month when active military campaigns resumed. May (Maius) and June (Junius) were also named for goddesses: Maia and Juno. April (Aprilis) is thought to stem from Latin aperio, meaning “to open”—a reference to the opening buds of springtime. The rest of the months were simply numbered their original names in Latin meant the fifth (Quintilis), sixth (Sextilis), seventh (September), eighth (October), ninth (November), and tenth (December) month.

Eventually, January (Januarius) and February (Februarius) were added to the end of the year, giving all 12 months proper names. January was named after Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and transitions, while February’s name is believed to stem from Februa, an ancient festival dedicated to ritual springtime cleaning and washing.

Julian Calendar Updates

When Julius Caesar became pontifex maximus, he reformed the Roman calendar so that the 12 months were based on Earth’s revolutions around the Sun. It was a solar calendar as we have today. January and February were moved to the front of the year, and leap years were introduced to keep the calendar year lined up with the solar year.

The winter months (January and February) remained a time of reflection, peace, new beginnings, and purification. After Caesar’s death, the month Quintilis was renamed July in honor of Julius Caesar in 44 BC and, later, Sextilis was renamed August in honor of Roman Emperor Augustus in 8 BC .

Of course, all the renaming and reorganizing meant that some of the months’ names no longer agreed with their position in the calendar (September to December, for example). Later emperors tried to name various months after themselves, but those changes did not outlive them!

Today’s Gregorian Calendar

Quite a bit later, in 1582, Pope Gregory XIII introduced a number of reforms to the Julian calendar, as there were still some inaccuracies and adjustments to be made. Mainly, the Julian calendar had overestimated the amount of time it took the Earth to orbit the Sun, so the Gregorian calendar shortened the calendar year from 365.25 days to 365.2425 days. This meant that the calendar could be more easily corrected by leap years and that the dates of the equinoxes and solstices—and thus, the date of Easter—once again lined up with their observed dates.

Origins of the Months’ Names


Named for the Roman god Janus, protector of gates and doorways. Janus is depicted with two faces, one looking into the past, the other into the future. In ancient Roman times, the gates of the temple of Janus were open in times of war and closed in times of peace.


From the Latin word februa, “to cleanse.” The Roman calendar month of Februarius was named for Februalia, a festival of purification and atonement that took place during this period.


Named for the Roman god of war, Mars. This was the time of year to resume military campaigns that had been interrupted by winter. March was also a time of many festivals, presumably in preparation for the campaigning season.


From the Latin word aperio, “to open (bud),” because plants begin to grow in this month. In essence, this month was viewed as spring’s renewal.


Named for the Roman goddess Maia, who oversaw the growth of plants. Also from the Latin word maiores, “elders,” who were celebrated during this month. Maia was considered a nurturer and an earth goddess, which may explain the connection with this springtime month.


Named for the Roman goddess Juno, patroness of marriage and the well-being of women. Also from the Latin word juvenis, “young people.”


Named to honor Roman dictator Julius Caesar (100 B.C.– 44 B.C. ) after his death. In 46 B.C., Julius Caesar made one of his greatest contributions to history: With the help of Sosigenes, he developed the Julian calendar, the precursor to the Gregorian calendar we use today.


Named to honor the first Roman emperor (and grandnephew of Julius Caesar), Augustus Caesar (63 B.C.– A.D. 14). Augustus (the first Roman emperor) comes from the Latin word “augustus,” meaning venerable, noble, and majestic.


September comes from the Latin word septem, meaning “seven,” because it was the seventh month of the early Roman calendar.


In the ancient Roman calendar, October was the name of the eighth month of the year. Its name comes from octo, the Latin word for “eight.” When the Romans converted to a 12-month calendar, they tried to rename this month after various Roman emperors, but the name October stuck!

In Old England, the month was called Winmonath, which means “wine month,” for this was the time of year when wine was made. The English also called it Winterfylleth, or “Winter Full Moon.” They considered this full Moon to be the start of winter. In weather lore, we note, “If October brings heavy frosts and winds, then will January and February be mild.”


From the Latin word novem, “nine,” because this had been the ninth month of the early Roman calendar.


From the Latin word decem, “ten,” because this had been the tenth month of the early Roman calendar.

Now that you know more about our month’s names, how about the day’s names—Monday, Tuesday, etc.? For the truly curious calendar lovers, check out the origin of day names.

August 2015 Calendar

View or download the 2015 calendar.
Go to 2015 Calendar.

DateSunriseSunsetLength of day
August 1, 20155:5220:1214h 20m
August 2, 20155:5320:1114h 18m
August 3, 20155:5420:0914h 15m
August 4, 20155:5520:0814h 13m
August 5, 20155:5620:0714h 11m
August 6, 20155:5720:0614h 9m
August 7, 20155:5820:0514h 7m
August 8, 20155:5920:0414h 5m
August 9, 20156:0020:0214h 2m
August 10, 20156:0120:0114h 0m
August 11, 20156:0220:0013h 58m
August 12, 20156:0319:5813h 55m
August 13, 20156:0419:5713h 53m
August 14, 20156:0519:5613h 51m
August 15, 20156:0619:5413h 48m
August 16, 20156:0719:5313h 46m
August 17, 20156:0819:5213h 44m
August 18, 20156:0919:5013h 41m
August 19, 20156:1019:4913h 39m
August 20, 20156:1119:4713h 36m
August 21, 20156:1219:4613h 34m
August 22, 20156:1319:4413h 31m
August 23, 20156:1419:4313h 29m
August 24, 20156:1519:4113h 26m
August 25, 20156:1619:4013h 24m
August 26, 20156:1719:3813h 21m
August 27, 20156:1819:3713h 19m
August 28, 20156:1919:3513h 16m
August 29, 20156:2019:3313h 13m
August 30, 20156:2119:3213h 11m
August 31, 20156:2219:3013h 8m

The sunrise and sunset are calculated from New York. All the times in the August 2015 calendar may differ when you eg live east or west in the United States. To see the sunrise and sunset in your region select a city above this list.

Marvin Antonio Romero-Romero, a 17-year-old Latino male, died Saturday, May 29, after being shot near 3141 E. Olympic Blvd. in Boyle Heights, according to Los Angeles County Medical Examiner-Coroner's records.

Do you have information to share about the life of Marvin Antonio Romero-Romero? The Homicide Report needs your help. Please fill out this form.

Today In Mormon History

The church's storage vaults in the granite mountains of Little Cottonwood Canyon are dedicated, which vaults are intended to withstand nuclear explosions in the event of war.

[The Mormon Hierarchy - Extensions of Power by D. Michael Quinn, [New Mormon History database (http://bit.ly/NMHdatabase)]]

60 years ago today - Jun 22, 1961

". President McKay also submitted the same of Hugh B. Brown as a counselor in the Presidency to help the Presidency now that President Clark is almost incapacitated. President Clark remains as first counselor and President Moyle as second counselor and Hugh B. Brown as a counselor in the Presidency. I stood with the Presidency and the Twelve while he was set apart to this position."

[The Diaries of J. Reuben Clark, 1933-1961, Abridged, Digital Edition, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2015, Appendix 2, The Diaries of Marion G. Romney, 1941-1961, Abridged]

60 years ago today - Jun 22,1961

First Presidency supports plan to persuade U.S. Army to send its "colored contingents" to California rather than to Utah. At its same meeting Presidency agrees to allow baptism of Nigerians seeking membership in church.

[Quinn, D. Michael, The Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power, Appendix 5, Selected Chronology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1848-1996, http://amzn.to/extensions-power]

100 years ago today - Jun 22, 1921

115 years ago today - Jun 22, 1906

160 years ago today - Jun 22, 1861 (Afternoon)

'When br. woodruff remarked that just so long as the devil lives he will oppose the saints, the question came to my mind '"how long will he live?'" I tell you the time is coming when he will not live.'

[The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young, Ed. Richard S. Van Wagoner, Smith-Pettit Foundation, Salt Lake City (2009), http://bit.ly/BY-discourses]

165 years ago today - Jun 22, 1856 (Council Meeting)

"When the sermon is published it will be then revelation. This earth was created expressly for the people come dwell on it - The spirits were all pure when they came here - the one third of the spirits were cast down to the earth never to get tabernacles - that is their curse - the fallen spirits are devils - When our persecutors die they become angels of the devils - those who left the first state will have a resurrection - when the bodies and spirits are reunited the second death has power which is dissolution - after all the righteous are redeemed then satan is let loose - All are in uproar again then a warfare again - then Jesus followers wipe them out - put them back to native element - then they can organized again - We have the promise we shall retain our identity both body and spirit - the mobocrats become angels of the devil or his perfect servants having sinned against light and knowledge - it will go on until every individual can preserve his identity - The Jews wont be as well off as the soldiers, for they will do as they were commanded - Jesus agony was not of the body but was greater for the sins of the world which were on him. -- Evening."

[The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young, Ed. Richard S. Van Wagoner, Smith-Pettit Foundation, Salt Lake City (2009), http://bit.ly/BY-discourses]

165 years ago today - Jun 22, 1856 (Afternoon)

". Take, for instance, the gift of tongues years ago in this Church you could find men of age, and seemingly of experience, who would preach and raise up Branches, and when quite young boys or girls would get up and speak in tongues, and others interpret, and perhaps that interpretation instructing the Elders who brought them into the Church, they would turn round and say, '"I know my duty, this is the word of the Lord to me and I must do as these boys or girls have spoken in tongues.'" You ask one of the Elders if they understand things so now, and they will say, '"No, the gifts are from the Lord, and we are agents to use them as we please.'" If a man is called to be a Prophet, and the gift of prophecy is poured upon him, though he afterwards actually defies the power of God and turns away from the holy commandments, that man will continue in his gift and will prophecy lies. He will make false prophecies, yet he will do it by the spirit of prophecy he will feel that he is a prophet and can prophecy, but he does it by another spirit and power than that which was given him of the Lord. He uses the gift as much as you and I use ours. The gift of seeing with the natural eyes is just as much a gift as the gift of tongues."

[Journal of Discourses. Liverpool, England, 1853-86. 3:362-375, in The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young, Ed. Richard S. Van Wagoner, Smith-Pettit Foundation, Salt Lake City (2009), http://bit.ly/BY-discourses]

170 years ago today - Jun 22, 1851

"I have seen a prophet and apostles who are perfect in their calling yet they are subject to all weaknesses of man, if the Prophet Joseph has been as perfect as this people wanted him to be they could not behold him, if he had been perfect he would have to wear a black veil over his face all the day long, the people could not behold the face of Moses, they begged for him to hide his face . "

[Thomas Bullock Minutes, in The Complete Discourses of Brigham Young, Ed. Richard S. Van Wagoner, Smith-Pettit Foundation, Salt Lake City (2009), http://bit.ly/BY-discourses]

55 years ago today - Jun 21, 1966

" . President Tanner mentioned that at the meeting of the Council referred to on June 9, the Brethren had mentioned that many of our young people who go through the Temples gain a wrong impression, that they do not obtain a proper understanding of the Temple work and sometimes lose their faith by reason of the Temple ceremonies. He explained that when companies of young men and young women going on missions have been through the Temple for the first time and received their endowments, it is customary to hold a meeting with these young people after the Temple session and explain to them the meaning of the Temple ceremonies and give them opportunity to ask questions. It was thought that it would be helpful if a meeting of this kind might be held with new converts, young couples and others who go through the Temples to receive their endowments so that they could ask questions and get enlightenment regarding the Temple ceremonies. . I also stated that the First Presidency would take the matter under consideration and appoint a committee of three to make a study of this problem."

[David O. McKay diary, June 21, 1966 emphasis in original, in Anderson, Devery The Development of LDS Temple Worship, 1846-2000: A Documentary History, http://amzn.to/TempleWorship]

75 years ago today - Jun 21, 1946

The first shipment of the Welfare Plan foodstuffs and essential commodities arrives in Geneva, Switzerland, for distribution to Mormons in war-devastated European cities. This aid totals eighty-five railroad freight cars. Eight months earlier the First Presidency reestablished proselytizing missions in Europe.

[The Mormon Hierarchy - Extensions of Power by D. Michael Quinn, [New Mormon History database (http://bit.ly/NMHdatabase)]]

80 years ago today - Jun 21, 1941

11:00'A. Richard Peterson regarding selling beer in grocery stores: by officers prominent in Church affairs. For example, the case of President A. Richard Peterson who purchased a grocery store and entered into business upon his return home from his Mission. With that purchase there went a license to sell beer. This license terminates June 30 and must be renewed July 1. President Peterson asks advice as to what course he should pursue regarding the renewal of his license.

If there is objection to his selling beer, what about tobacco, cigarettes, etc. which many of the Latter-day Saints are purchasing, even mothers.

[David O. McKay Diary, as quoted in Minutes of the Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1910-1951, Privately Published, Salt Lake City, Utah 2010]

120 years ago today - Jun 21, 1901

'This evening from about 9-30 to 12 O.C[lock], my wife and I attended to the second part of the ordinance of second anointings. We besides the ordinance itself sang "We thank thee O God for a prophet," conversed concerning our duties to each other and children, read from John XII:1-8 verses, read the Rev[elation] on the Eternity of the Marriage Covenant, Section 132. We dedicated [the] room [in our house] for the purpose of this meeting [and] closed by singing: "Oh my father thou that dwellest." Anna was mouth in [the] preliminary prayer [and] I gave the dedicatory prayer and the benediction. The spirit of the Lord was with us and we felt nearer together than usual: were much encouraged in pressing onward in an endeavor to succeed in life. We fasted during the day and broke our fast together a little after 12 O.C[lock].'

[William Henry Smart diary, June 21, 1901, Marriott Library, in Anderson, Devery The Development of LDS Temple Worship, 1846-2000: A Documentary History, http://amzn.to/TempleWorship]

120 years ago today - Jun 21, 1901 Friday

President Lorenzo Snow promised Messrs. Taylor and Wagner, both colored, who are trying to build a church for the colored people that when said church is erected we will give them $70. on it.

[First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve minutes]

185 years ago today - Jun 21, 1836

Mormon missionaries are tried for preaching. Apostle David W. Patten and future apostle Wilford Woodruff (hereafter Woodruff), among the missionaries in the Tennessee court, are assessed court costs and released.

[Quinn, D. Michael, The Mormon Hierarchy: Origins of Power, Appendix 7: Selected Chronology of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1830-47, http://amzn.to/origins-power]

120 years ago today - Thursday, Jun 20, 1901

Pres. [Lorenzo] Snow arose and said, I desire to bear my testimony. I know that Jesus lives. Many of you who are here tonight will see him, you will see that he is a noble looking man, and you will feel like going to him and shaking hands. When you return to Jackson County and engage in building the temple there, you will see Jesus and be associated with him. I bear this testimony for I know it is true.

[Stan Larson (editor), A Ministry of Meetings: The Apostolic diaries of Rudger Clawson, Signature Books in association with Smith Research Associates, Salt Lake City, 1993, http://bit.ly/rudgerclawson]

120 years ago today - June 20th, 1901

"I have been called or order for teaching that Priesthood is "Divine Authority" and when a Deacon is ordained, all the rights, keys, blessings, etc., are conferred pertaining to this office in the Aaronic Priesthood. Bro. Jos. contended that the whole Priesthood of Aaron was given in the Ordination. This view I cannot see now and take. Bro. Jos. was more than earnest and was brotherly and kindly reprimanded by Pres. Snow. Joined Presidency and Twelve at Pres. Jos. F. Good supper and excellent singing and music. Pres. Snow now spoke of Jesus coming to such gatherings and there were those there who would meet Him in this life and many other good things."

120 years ago today - Jun 20, 1901

Pres[iden]t. [Lorenzo] Snow after the singing of a hymn arose and said: 'He The Savior Lives and I know it! Many of you will live to see Him. He will be a grand gentleman and will be like a kind father to you. Many of you will live to go to Jackson Co[unty]. [Missouri] and you will see Him there.'

[Abraham Owen Woodruff, Diary, as quoted in Minutes of the Apostles of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1835-1951, Electronic Edition, 2015]

145 years ago today - Jun 20, 1876

June 20, 1876 Glory Hallalulah for this days for in spite of the Devil through the Blessing of God I have had the privilege this day of going into the Endowment House and with my family have been Baptized for (949) Eight Hundred and Seventy Two of my dead Relatives & friends .

I Felt to rejoice that after Forty three years labor in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints that I had the privilege of going into a Baptismal font with my Eldest Brother Azmon Woodruff and my Children to redeem our dead.

[Wilford Woodruff's Journal: 1833-1898 Typescript, Volumes 1-9, Edited by Scott G. Kenney, Signature Books 1993, http://amzn.to/newmormonstudies]

175 years ago today - Saturday, Jun 20, 1846.

A lady from Fort Leavenworth told Brother Lewis that [former Missouri governor] Boggs started with a company of emigrants for Oregon, heard that 4,000 Mormons were on their way, and for fear they would find him and kill him he had returned home to Independence, Missouri.

[Apostle Willard Richards Journal]

185 years ago today - Jun 20, 1836

Patriarchal Blessing of Jacob Chamberlain given by Joseph Smith, Sr. . Thou shalt go to Zion and possess the things of this life: thou shalt have houses, lands and possessions. Thou shalt have power to help build up Zion and see her flourish upon the hills: Thou shalt see the hosts of God gathered there. Thou shalt have power to translate thyself like Enoch. Thou art a Son of Abraham, has a right to the priesthood and art called to it. Something whispers me that all will be well with thee

[Patriarchal Blessing Book 1:84 text from Patriarchal Blessing Book 2:143-144, in Early Patriarchal Blessings of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Joseph Smith Sr. (Author), H. Michael Marquardt (Editor), http://amzn.to/rCBHVe]

185 years ago today - Jun 20, 1836

Patriarchal Blessing of Lucia Louisa Leavitt given by Joseph Smith, Sr. . Thou shalt teach the daughters of the Lamanites and instruct them in our Language. . Thou shalt have children and be instrumental in peopling the new earth. for thou shalt live to behold the winding up scene of this generation when wickedness shall be swept off the face of the earth and thou shalt stand when Jesus Christ shall come in the clouds of heaven. By the authority of the holy priesthood I seal these blessings upon thee, and I seal thee up unto eternal life, even so Amen.

[Patriarchal Blessing Book 1:112, in Early Patriarchal Blessings of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Joseph Smith Sr. (Author), H. Michael Marquardt (Editor), http://amzn.to/rCBHVe]

185 years ago today - Jun 20, 1836

Patriarchal Blessing of Oliver Snow given by Joseph Smith, Sr. . Thou shalt live to see the tribes come in from the North . Thou salt see thy Redeemer and shalt converse with him face to face. while thou art in the flesh. This is thy portion and I seal these blessings upon thee by the authority of the holy priesthood. I seal thee up unto eternal life on condition of thy obedience, even so Amen.

[Early Patriarchal Patriarchal Blessing Book 1:111, in Blessings of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Joseph Smith Sr. (Author), H. Michael Marquardt (Editor), http://amzn.to/rCBHVe]

185 years ago today - (Mon) Jun 20, 1836

Joseph Smith was acquitted in a trial before the Court of Common Pleas at Chardon, on a charge of assault and battery brought by his brother-in-law, Calvin Stoddard.

[Painesville Telegraph, 1:26, June 26, 1835, quoted at Broadhurst, Dale R., Mormon Chronology, http://olivercowdery.com/history/morchrn2.htm]

70 years ago today - Jun 19, 1951

105 years ago today - Jun 19, 1916

To Bishoprics of Wards, Dear Brethren:

At the Stake Clerks' meeting, held during the late general conference, definite instructions were sought for in regard to making a record of cases of transgression of young people who make public confession of their wrongdoing and are forgiven.

No record should be made of this class of cases, nor of cases of the same character of a strictly private nature considered by a Bishop or Bishopric, but a record should be made and kept of cases of fornication or adultery tried in the regular way by the Bishop's court.

This question has also been asked:

At which of the meetings should persons guilty of unchastity be required to make confession, at the general meeting of the members of the ward, at the fast meeting, or at the monthly priesthood meeting?

Answer: The regulation of confessions should be left to the Bishopric of the ward in which the wrongdoing occurs, each case considered by them on its own merits, and disposed of according to the publicity already given to it. For instance, where people guilty of adultery or fornication confess their sin, and their transgression is known to themselves only, their confession should not be made public. But where publicity has been given to it their confession should be made before the priesthood of the ward at the regular monthly meeting or, if it be deemed advisable that a still more public confession be made, such a confession should be made at the monthly fast meeting, and not at the regular Sunday services. .

As a rule therefore where the transgression is known to but few, the confession (if required at all) should be made at the priesthood meeting, and only in cases where the offense has become a public scandal and reproach to the Church, should the more public confession be required. Your Brethren, JOSEPH F. SMITH, ANTHON H. LUND, CHARLES W. PENROSE, First Presidency.

[1916-June 19-Original letter. Church Historian's Library, in Clark, James R., Messages of the First Presidency (6 volumes)]

June 29, 2015 Day 160 of the Seventh Year - History

NEC English
Virtual Camp Meeting NEC English Virtual Camp Meeting will be June 26th and July 3rd, 2021. Teacher's Commissioning Service will be held on June 26th and Ordination Service will be held on July 3rd. Click here for more details.
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Virtual Camp Meeting Join NEC Youth Ministries for Virtual Camp Meeting with Pastor Lola Moore-Johnston and Pastor Helvis Moody
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Teachers Commissioning The NEC Teacher's Commissioning will be June 26th at 4:00 pm
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Camporee NEC Adventurer Virtual Camporee, June 25-27th. Visit www.necyouth.org/events to register.
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Hymn NEC presents Worship Hymn - A Camp Meeting Vibe with dynamic speakers and musical artists, June 26th at 5:00 pm
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Dedicates New Truck NEC Adventist Community Services, joined by Atlantic Union Officials, dedicate a brand new Adventist Community Services Truck
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Juice4Life The NEC ABC Store opens Juice4Life. A fresh fruit and vegetable juice bar.
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