Gantner DE-60 - History

Gantner DE-60 - History


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Gantner

Boatswain's Mate Samuel Merritt Gantner, born 24 December 1919 in Fresno, Calif., enlisted in the Navy 12 May 1937. While serving as gun captain on battleship Nevada he was killed in action during the attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941. He was posthumously commended for distinguished devotion to duty and extraordinary courage in action against the Japanese aerial raiders.

(DE-60: dp. 1,400; 1. 306'; b. 37'; dr. 9'5"; s. 23.5 k.;

cpl. 186, a. 3 3", 4 1.1", 8 20~nm., 3 21' tt.; 2 dct., 8 dcp.

1 dcp. (h.h.), cl. Buckley)

Gantner (DE-60) was launched 17 April 1943 by the Bethlehem Steel Co., Quincy, Mass.; sponsored by Mrs. Samuel M. Gantner, widow of Boatswain's Mate Gantner; commissioned at the Boston Navy Yard 23 July 1943, Lt. Comdr. Barklie M. Henry in command.

After shakedown out of Bermuda, Gantner escorted SS George Washington from Puerto Rico to New York, arriving 1 December 1943. She departed New York 26 December 1943 as a part of the escort for a convoy which reached Londonderry, Northern Ireland 8 January 1994. She returned to New York 24 January and by 8 October had made seven more trans-Atlantic escort voyages from that port to Londonderry.

Following repairs in the Boston Naval Shipyard and battle practice in Casco Bay, Gantner departed Boston 3 November 1944 escorting Pinto (ATF-90) and towing ARDC-I to Cristobal, Canal Zone. She then proceeded to Miami, Fla., to serve as floating schoolship in waters extending to the Bahamas and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. She departed Miami 19 February 1945 for conversion to a high speed transport (APD - 2) in the New York Naval Shipyard. She was reclassified (APD-42) 23 February 1945.

Gantner departed New York 14 May 1945 for amphibious warfare landing exercises in the Chesapeake Bay area until 2 June, then proceeded via the Panama Canal and San Diego,to Pearl Harbor where she reported for duty with the 5th Amphibious Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet, 28 June. After training underwater demolition teams in Maclea Bay until 3 August, she embarked UDT~ at San Diego and sailed for the Far East via Hawaii and the Marshall Islands to Japan, entering Tokyo Bay 4 September. Her frogmen reconnoitered beaches and reported on suitability of landing Army occupation forces at Shiogama Wan and Ominato Ro, Honshu, Japan. From 30 September to 7 October 1945, her swimmers made surveys for the Port Director, Otaru, Hokkaido with the help of United States Army advance parties ashore.

Gantner departed Tokyo Bay 12 October 1945 to embark a returning Marine contingent at Apra Harbor, Guam, and sailed thence via the Marshalls and Hawaii to San Diego where she disembarked military passengers 1 November 1945. For the next three years she was based at San Diego, largely employed as an amphibious warfare training ship for marines. From 26 January to 6 March 1946 she made a cruise from San Diego with the 1st Marine Division Reconnaissance Detachment for cold weather manuevers that took her to Rodiak, Juneau, Tolstoi Bay and Clarence Straits, Alaska. Her amphibious schedule on the California coast was again interrupted 28 October-18 November 1948 by a cruise northward to act as guard ship on weather and air-sea rescue patrol station for Navy patrol planes scouting north to Seattle, and thence back to San Francisco.

Gantner resumed her amphibious training out of San Diego until 19 January 1949 when she sailed for Shanghai, China. She reached her destination 14 February and served on station at the Chinese ports of Shanghai, Nanking and Tsingtao. Departing the last named port 7 April, she escorted Rendova (CVE-114) to Yokosuka, Japan, then sailed via Guam and Pearl Harbor for the west coast, arriving San Diego 4 May 1949. She decommissioned 2 August 1949 and was assigned to the San Diego Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet. She was struck from the Navy List 15 January 1966. On 22 February 1966 Gantner was sold to Nationalist China under the Military Assistance Program.


Gantner DE-60 - History

Professor Gantner's class is entirely based on the readings the first day of class he told everyone their attendance and participation wouldn't affect their grades at all. The midterm and final (about 4 pages each) are based on topics from the readings, and they make up the entirety of the class grade. The due dates are pretty flexible, but that was a result of being incredibly vague (we were told different things on the syllabus, in class, and in office hours.) The class itself is interesting if you want to actually learn about California history (especially when Professor Gantner shows historic pictures) but entirely irrelevant if you just want to get a good grade in the class.

I took Gantner's history of California class over the summer. The guy is an awesome lecturer with an expansive vocabulary. Very confident and knowledgeable. His political views are very left wing, and once or twice he digressed into full on rants. This became a little distracting for me as I am quite conservative. But Gantner is very respectful towards students, and never made anyone uncomfortable for disagreeing with him. He is hilarious as well, and a few of his bitter one liners had me dying.

As far as assignments, my class was not typical as Gantner was experiencing a family emergency at the time. Our grade ended up being comprised of a single paper, which I put a weekend into and finished with an A. I highly Gantner for anybody who enjoys strong lectures with a lot of humor on the side.

He lectures really well and is pretty funny. He gave us the final questions before hand, but they were pretty tough questions overall. If you have to take a history class, take his. Its not dry, as most history classes can be and you know whats going to be on the exams.

Cool professor. loves the dodgers,interesting class about California. Will learn nothing you haven't learned if you went to grade school in California.

Gantner's probably the easiest professor in the history department but also the least concerned about student learning. His speciality is American history, and in his lectures he takes up the persona of a grumpy old man. He has an incredibly sarcastic, angry sense of humor, and his comments about modern society are quite a sight to behold. To put it simply, his lectures are never boring. As for the way he sets up his class, he usually gives ALL the questions in advance for his exams, and they're pretty easy and self explanatory. This is the class for an easy A. But if you expect to get to know Gantner, become buddies with him in office hours, or have him answer your questions, he's the wrong guy. Gantner often ditched his office hours, which may be understandable considering his two jobs, two young kids, and hurried schedule. But he does have the commitment to fulfill as a professor. That detail aside, anyone should want to take him, for his dry as sandpaper sense of humor, and his easy A friendly exam setup.


Contents

World War II, 1943–1945

After shakedown out of Bermuda, Gantner escorted SS George Washington from Puerto Rico to New York, arriving there on 1 December 1943. She departed New York on 26 December 1943 as a part of the escort for a convoy which reached Derry, Northern Ireland on 8 January 1944. She returned to New York on 24 January and by 8 October had made seven more trans-Atlantic escort voyages from that port to Derry.

Following repairs in the Boston Naval Shipyard and battle practice in Casco Bay, Gantner departed Boston on 3 November 1944 escorting fleet tug Pinto (ATF-90) and towing concrete repair dock ARDC-1 to Cristóbal, Canal Zone. She then proceeded to Miami, Florida, to serve as floating school ship in waters extending to the Bahamas and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. She departed Miami on 19 February 1945 for conversion to a Charles Lawrence-class high speed transport in the New York Naval Shipyard. She was reclassified APD-42 on 23 February 1945.

Gantner departed New York on 14 May 1945 for amphibious warfare landing exercises in the Chesapeake Bay area until 2 June, then proceeded via the Panama Canal and San Diego to Pearl Harbor where she reported for duty with the 5th Amphibious Force, Pacific Fleet, on 28 June. After training Underwater Demolition Teams in Maalea Bay until 3 August, she embarked UDT-3 at San Diego and sailed for the Far East via Hawaii and the Marshall Islands to Japan, entering Tokyo Bay on 4 September. Her frogmen reconnoitered beaches and reported on suitability of landing Army occupation forces at Shiogama Wan and Ominato Ko, Honshū, Japan. From 30 September to 7 October 1945, her swimmers made surveys for the Port Director, Otaru, Hokkaidō with the help of United States Army advance parties ashore.

Gantner departed Tokyo Bay on 12 October 1945 to embark a returning Marine contingent at Apra Harbor, Guam, and sailed thence via the Marshalls and Hawaii to San Diego where she disembarked military passengers on 1 November 1945.

1946–1949

For the next three years she was based at San Diego, largely employed as an amphibious warfare training ship for Marines. From 26 January to 6 March 1946 she made a cruise from San Diego with the 1st Marine Division Reconnaissance Detachment for cold weather maneuvers that took her to Kodiak, Juneau, Tolstoi Bay and Clarence Strait, Alaska. Her amphibious schedule on the California coast was again interrupted on 28 October–18 November 1948 by a cruise northward to act as guard ship on weather and air-sea rescue patrol station for Navy patrol planes scouting north to Seattle, and thence back to San Francisco.

Gantner resumed her amphibious training out of San Diego until 19 January 1949 when she sailed for Shanghai, China. She reached her destination on 14 February and served on station at the Chinese ports of Shanghai, Nanking and Tsingtao. Departing the last named port on 7 April, she accompanied the escort carrier Rendova (CVE-114) to Yokosuka, Japan, then sailed via Guam and Pearl Harbor for the west coast, arriving at San Diego on 4 May 1949.

Decommissioning and sale to the Republic of China

Gantner was decommissioned on 2 August 1949, and was assigned to the San Diego Group, Pacific Reserve Fleet. She was struck from the Navy List on 15 January 1966. On 22 February 1966, Gantner was sold to Nationalist China under the Military Assistance Program.

The ex-Gantner collided on 17 April 1966 with ex-Walter B. Cobb (former APD-106), while both were under tow to Taiwan, resulting in the loss of ex-Walter B. Cobb. Ex-Gantner was commissioned into the Republic of China Navy in May 1966 as frigate Wen Shan (PF-34). With a different hull number, 834, Wen Shan was scrapped in 1991.


Gantner DE-60 - History

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Brewers' Top 5 second basemen: McCalvy's take

No one loves a good debate quite like baseball fans, and with that in mind, we asked each of our beat reporters to rank the top five players by position in the history of their franchise, based on their career while playing for that club. These rankings are for fun and debates purposes only … if you don’t agree with the order, feel free to let the reporter know on Twitter.

Here is Adam McCalvy’s ranking of the top 5 second basemen in Brewers history.

We're building an all-time lineup for all 30 teams based on their stats in that uniform. Up next: 2B.

So whether you make a selection with your left thumb or your right thumb, or you're amphibious, get up on the palms of your feet and vote. Here's my top 3 in alphabetical order:

&mdash Adam McCalvy (@AdamMcCalvy) April 6, 2020

1) Jim Gantner, 1976-92
Key fact: No. 17 is not formally retired, but the Brewers have not issued it to anyone since

Robin Yount, Paul Molitor and Jim Gantner played together for 15 years, the longest tenure for a trio of teammates in Major League history until the Yankees’ Derek Jeter, Jorge Posada and Mariano Rivera broke the mark in 2010. Two of the Brewers’ trio wound up in the Hall of Fame. The other was a 12th-round Draft pick from central Wisconsin, the son of a factory worker who took a blue-collar approach to playing big league baseball. Gantner was famously feisty, often tangling with opponents on the field and sometimes in the barroom. He batted .274 in his career, and while he didn’t hit for much power -- Gantner’s homer off Oakland’s Dave Stewart on Sept. 3, 1991, was his first since ’87, spanning 1,762 at-bats and 544 games -- Gantner became a steady hand at second base thanks in part to a strong throwing arm he’d honed as a boy playing catcher.

“I don’t think Jimmy would mind me saying that he was an overachiever,” Molitor said. “He went on to have a very good, very consistent career. He was fearless at second base. And he got a lot of big hits for us over the years. One of the most enjoyable things about my career is that I got to spend all 15 years with him and Robin.”

All-time Brewers rankings: First basemen | Catchers

2) Rickie Weeks, 2003, ཁ-14
Key fact: Top 10 in franchise history in games, runs, extra-base hits, total bases, stolen bases

The Brewers drafted him second overall in 2003 -- Delmon Young went first to Tampa Bay -- and Rickie Weeks Jr. joined a crop of Milwaukee Minor Leaguers that already included J.J. Hardy, Corey Hart and old friend Prince Fielder, another product of the Orlando area. The two had played travel ball together and quickly resumed a friendship that advanced to Double-A, Triple-A and then the Major Leagues, having lots of success as a group before uniting in Milwaukee to help the Brewers end a decades-long slump.

Whether Weeks reached the sky-high expectations that accompany such a high Draft position remains a matter of debate. But he was a capable and dangerous leadoff man -- Weeks’ .347 on-base percentage is 10th in franchise history among players with at least 2,500 at-bats and his 148 home runs rank 12th -- atop a lineup that was one of the National League’s best in the late 2000s. And while he didn’t have Gantner’s longevity or defensive skill, Weeks did bring similar toughness.

“People don’t give Rickie so much credit,” said former teammate Martín Maldonado, “but Rickie should have a lot of credit over here.”

3) Fernando Viña, 1995-99
Key fact: Ranks 19th in MLB history with 157 hit-by-pitches

Fernando Viña made his only All-Star Game in 1998, the year he slashed .311/386/.427 with a career-high 39 doubles and a 114 adjusted OPS. It was the best of Viña’s five years with the Brewers before a trade to the Cardinals in a regrettable deal that netted Juan Acevedo, Eliezer Alfonzo and Matt Parker. Viña won a couple of Gold Glove Awards in St. Louis before finishing his 12-year big league career in Detroit.

But nothing he did gained more notoriety than the eighth inning on May 31, 1996, when Viña fielded a grounder in a game against the Indians and went to tag Albert Belle between first and second base in hopes of starting a double play. Belle lowered his right shoulder and sent Viña sprawling to the dirt. It was a magnified version of a similar play five innings earlier, when Belle was chided by then-Indians first-base coach (and later Brewers coach, television analyst and front-office official) Dave Nelson for not doing more to break up a double play. Belle was suspended and fined by the American League for the incident.

4) Scooter Gennett, 2013-16
Key fact: Full name is Ryan Joseph Gennett “Scooter” came from the TV show “Muppet Babies”

Among players who appeared in at least 300 games as the Brewers’ second baseman, only Paul Molitor -- for the purposes of this exercise, we’re considering Molitor at third base -- and Weeks had an OPS superior to Scooter Gennett’s .744 while manning the position. Yet the Brewers waived Gennett during 2017 Spring Training because they felt covered on the middle infield with Orlando Arcia and Jonathan Villar, only to watch Gennett hit 50 home runs and log an .859 OPS over the next two seasons in Cincinnati.

5) Ronnie Belliard, 1998-02
Key fact: First Brewers hitter to step to home plate in a regular-season game at Miller Park

Belliard was the Brewers’ eighth-round Draft pick in 1994 and proved a solid value, though his best years came after he left as a free agent following the 2002 season. Belliard is fourth in Brewers history with 416 games played as a second baseman.

Honorable mentions
We did not forget about Paul Molitor and Mark Loretta, who each played a good bit of second base during their years with Brewers. But Molitor made about twice as many appearances at third base in a Milwaukee uniform than at second, and Loretta played more than twice as many innings at shortstop. So they were each categorized at those other positions.

Pedro Garcia played in four seasons for the Brewers from 1973-76 and led the AL with 32 doubles in ’73.

An argument can be made to rank Willie Randolph ahead of Belliard and maybe even Gennett on the strength of one fantastic season in a Brewers uniform, 1991, when Randolph slashed .327/.424/.374 and was worth 4.0 fWAR, just ahead of Kirby Puckett, Cecil Fielder and Rickey Henderson.

Give Keston Hiura some time and he could appear on this list. His 19 home runs last season (in 348 plate appearances) were third-most for a Brewers rookie in franchise history.


Gantner DE-60 - History

2009: GANTNER opens the "Sicherheitszentrale", a flagship store in Bregenz (A).

2008: GANTNER founds subsidiary GANTNER Electronic PTY Ltd. Australia

2006: GANTNER founds subsidiary GANTNER Electronics Ltd. in St. Neots (UK).

2005: The GANTNER Electronic GmbH office in St. Neots (GB) is founded.

2002: Wilhelm Gantner hands over the general management of the company to Elmar Hartmann.

2001: The GANTNER Electronic GmbH office in Dubai (UAE) is founded.

1998: Company moves into the new building in the Montafonerstraße in Schruns (Austria).

1996: Development of a new product range with the purchase of the range of time measurement systems for carrier pigeon racing from the then world market leader BENZING (VS-Schwenningen, Germany): With chip rings, loft antennas, stationary and mobile recording systems a new application for the non-contact identification technology from GANTNER ELECTRONIC® is marketed successfully around the world.

1996: The 100% subsidiary GANTNER ELECTRONIC GMBH DEUTSCHLAND is founded for the sale of electronic access and time recording solutions.

1993: A decisive indication of the course towards global marketing of the company&rsquos own products and solutions is the company&rsquos participation in the F.M. ZUMTOBEL Group (Dornbirn/Austria).

1988: With three partners Wilhelm Gantner founds the company ACE Automation Computer Engineering GmbH in Salzburg (Austria) with the aim of marketing the GANTNER ELECTRONIC® product range around the world. In 1993 the company is taken over completely and integrated into GANTNER ELECTRONIC® GmbH.

1982: Building on the experience he has gained as a co-founder of an electronics company which successfully built up a new market with self-developed electronic safety and ticket systems, Wilhelm Gantner brings the company GANTNER ELECTRONIC® into being in spring 1982 in Schruns (Austria). GANTNER ELECTRONIC® soon becomes a partner for innovative research and development orders to renowned companies at home and abroad.


USS GANTNER DE-60 Framed Navy Ship Display

This is a beautiful ship display commemorating the USS GANTNER (DE-60). The artwork depicts the USS GANTNER in all her glory. More than just an artistic concept of the ship, this display includes a custom designed ship crest plaque and an engraved ship statistics plaque. This product is richly finished with custom cut and sized double mats and framed with a high quality black frame. Only the best materials are used to complete our ship displays. Navy Emporium Ship Displays make a generous and personal gift for any Navy sailor.

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Oral history interviews of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum's Germany Documentation Project.

Oral history interview with Waltrudis Becker

Waltrudis Becker, born in 1917 in Villingen, Germany, describes her family and childhood in Karlsruhe-Forchheim, Germany her father’s work as a farmer and how he came to support National Socialism stories told to her by her parents about the first World War her father’s antisemitism traveling by bicycle with her mother to Nuremberg during the Nazi party conference in 1933 hearing Hitler speak hearing about attacks on Jews the persecution of Jews in her town, including the boycott of stores owned by Jews her time in the Bund Deutscher Madel joining the German Labor Service before it became the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD) working on a farm in Schussenried, Germany the death of her father in 1937 traveling to Forchheim to assist her mother her engagement and marriage in 1939 her time in a women's labor school in Reutlingen local complaints about the government the role of her husband as the local farm leader the different types of forced laborers on her farm during the war, including Polish, Russian, and French prisoners of war stories about individual workers and how she and her husband treated them her comfortable living conditions during the war her support of the Nazi regime, including her membership in the Frauenschaft sheltering family members during the war the births of her children during the war rumors that deserters from the army were hanged American soldiers taking away their forced labor to a displaced persons camp in Coburg in 1945 American soldiers taking over her home at the end of the war disposing of the evidence that she and her husband were Nazi Party members forced laborers who defended her husband’s actions during the war the arrival of refugees in her town the trial of her husband which ruled him to be a minor Nazi supporter her classification as a bystander her understanding of Nazi policies critiques of how the history of the Third Reich is taught and her life after the war.

Oral history interview with Jurgen Boehlke

Jurgen Boehlke, born in Dresden, Germany on April 10, 1923, describes his maternal grandparents, who lost their fortune in the 1920s and afterwards the family lived in Hosterwitz, Germany in very poor circumstances his mother’s first marriage and her divorces after WWI his father, Dr. Walter Boehlke, who was a professor of veterinary medicine his early life in Danzig (Gdansk, Poland) his brother’s birth in 1927 his parents’ divorces in 1928 and returning to Hosterwitz his mother joining the Nazi party in 1933 and working for the local Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse attending school and being expelled in 1939 being drafted in the army as a reserve officer’s candidate (stationed in Dresden) in 1942 being assigned to a truck battalion in Kamenz, Germany the deportation of his girlfriend to Theresienstadt being sent in April 1943 to Grimma being sent in August 1943 to Hamburg, where he and concentration camp inmates from Neuengamme removed corpses from the recent bombing being ordered to Italy for deployment with the Turkistan infantry division being in a hospital in South Tirol because of psoriasis from the winter of 1943 until April 1944 returning to the front being shot in the head on July 7, 1944 being hospitalized until the war’s end (in Riva, Italy an air force hospital in Villa D’este and Bad Harzburg, Germany) being released to Bad Harzburg and becoming a carpenter’s helper entering the KPD in 1945 having a workshop for bookbinding and graphic arts going to Dresden studying bookbinding joining the SED getting married being an independent bookbinder and later a bookbinding instructor at the Weissensee School of Art in Berlin and retiring in 1977.

Oral history interview with Johanna Braunsdorf

Johanna Braunsdorf, born on March 21, 1907 in Berlin-Kreuzberg, Germany, describes her father who was an architect her mother, who came from a farm in Gera/Thuringia her sister attending school studying electro-technology at the Technical University of Berlin from 1927 to 1933 a practical study in Paris, France being an engineer from 1933 to 1942 at the Siemens Electrical Tube Factory (Röhrenwerk) in Berlin moving with her family to Dreilinden in 1934 her mother’s death in 1942 being employed at the Labor Ministry in Berlin from 1942 to 1946 her friendship with a Jewish professor who died during the war the Holocaust memorial in Berlin her lack of political interests and commitment to equality getting married to Otto Braunsdorf in 1946 legally moving to West Berlin in 1959 and her second marriage.

Oral history interview with Friedrich Grosse

Friedrich Grosse, born on October 15, 1913 in Hesserode, Nordhausen, Germany, describes his three older siblings his father and mother attending school being a barber’s apprentice 1930 to 1934 in Nordhausen being drafted in 1939 into the Army Flak unit (anti-aircraft) being stationed until 1943 at air bases in Nordhausen, Koelleda, Espenhain, and Boehlen being assigned to Dawision in 1943 then Ljubljana being sent to Italy in the fall of 1943 getting married in January 15, 1944 participating in the battle of Monte Cassino being wounded in the knee while transporting ammunition on June 18, 1944 and spending several weeks in a hospital being awarded the Iron Cross, second class defending a bridge in Ferrara between October 1944 and April 1945 being a prisoner of war from April 24, 1945 to December 1946 going to Zwenkau, where his wife lived moving to Hesserode in 1949 then Nordhausen in 1985 and his wife’s death in 1992.

Oral history interview with Rolf Hoffmann

Rolf Hoffman, born in Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany in 1923, discusses his family life his working class upbringing his extended family’s political identification with both the extreme right and extreme left his education avoiding joining the Hitler Youth being recruited for compulsory work service (RAD 2) in 1941-1942 being recruited to the military in April 1942 joining the military band fighting on the eastern front in East Prussia in 1944 capitulation crossing back into Germany from Russian territory being demobilized by the American Army joining the Social Democrat Party (SPD) after the war becoming more assigned with the political left his career as a policeman working to control the black market being promoted to chief of police in Halle spending two years in Zanzibar his marriage and children beginning his civil career in a regional parliament his knowledge of concentration camps during the war and his feelings about the post-war government in the GDR.

Oral history interview with Erwin Huber

Erwin Huber, born in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia in 1932, discusses his family life growing up with a Croatian mother and German father his education at a German school prewar relations among Croats, Serbs, and Germans joining the Hitler Youth moving to Croatia in 1941 because of his father’s job his father’s career as the director of a cooperative farm his father being called up as an army officer in Macedonia escaping from the American Army to Schärding, Austria in 1944 with his family the consequences for his family when his father was denounced as an SS officer in 1945 crossing the border illegally living in a refugee camp settling in Tuttlingen, Germany embarking on an apprenticeship his marriage and children his family’s feelings about being refugees after the war his father’s and uncle’s roles in Nazism and the SS and his memories of anti-Jewish legislation and a camp where partisans were imprisoned.

Oral history interview with Edgar Krämer

Edgar Krämer, born in Berlin-Schoneberg, Germany in 1927, discusses his father’s membership in the Nazi Party starting in 1931 moving throughout Germany for his father’s work in lumber factories settling in Königsberg witnessing Kristallnacht entering an elite Nazi boarding school known as NAPOLA meeting gauleiter Eric Koch at school working as an anti-aircraft assistant in 1943 in Danzig being forced to quit NAPOLA in 1944 as a result of bad behavior his father's membership in the Volksturm militia at the end of the war moving into a Jewish owned apartment after his family’s home was destroyed by bombing beginning his compulsory work service (RAD) joining the military in January 1945 participating in the last fight for Berlin Germany's capitulation being discharged by the British Army his university studies his feelings about anti-Jewish violence and Nazi efforts to indoctrinate people and his feelings about immigration in contemporary Germany.

Oral history interview with Rolf Kreisch

Rolf Kreisch, born in 1927 in the Pomeranian region of Germany, discusses his family life his upper-class upbringing being aware of the poverty around him his father joining the army in 1939 his education joining the Jungvolk in 1937 graduating to the Hitler Youth a few years later attaining the highest nonprofessional position in the organization partaking in SS recruitment efforts as part of his role in the Hitler Youth resisting Nazi policies by continuing to attend church routines during the war joining the compulsory labor service (RAD) in 1944 volunteering for the army in late 1944 fighting in the trenches on the eastern front feeling fearful and disillusioned being wounded in combat Germany's capitulation his capture by Soviet forces on the Hela Peninsula his imprisonment in a POW camp in Minsk, Belarus being moved to a silver mine in Czechoslovakia fleeing the prison camp in 1949 being discharged as a POW by American forces returning to his mother and sister in Germany learning his father was killed in action in 1945 reflections on his parents’ prewar Jewish friends and learning about mass killings by gas.

Oral history interview with Gudrun Kubler

Gudrun Kubler, born December 28, 1911 in Sindelfingen, Germany, discusses her early life with her parents her father’s anti-Nazi sentiments meeting her husband having children the difficulties of childbirth her husband’s career during the war flying around Germany in 1934 on free flights for her honeymoon attending Göring’s wedding and other Nazi Party functions the pressure to conform to Nazi platform as a result of fear her memories of Kristallnacht and the persecution of Jews raising her children while her husband was at war the destruction of her home during bombing raids the threats of violence by French soldiers after the war her husband’s return after the war her postwar relationships with Jewish people and not knowing what her husband did during the war.

Oral history interview with Helmut Kübler

Helmut Kübler, born in Göppingen, Germany in 1906, discusses growing up in a Protestant family his father's expierences in World War I moving to Stuttgart in 1922 studying engineering joining a Protestant fraternity known as "Wingolf" meeting his wife finishing his doctorate in civil air traffic in 1932 having a difficult time finding employment delaying his marriage as a result of financial hardship accepting Hitler's government because of improvments he saw in Germany moving to Berlin to work at the Ministry of Aviation in 1933 being recruited for the military in the engineering corps in 1936 joining the general staff of the air force in 1938 living away from his family being posted to the front in Saloniki, Greece visting the concentration camps Mittlebrau-Dora and Nordhausen in 1943 and 1944 believing the prisoners to be well cared for being called to the front in 1945 his capture by American soldiers his discharge from the military the penatlies imposed on him during Denazification his postwar career at Statistical/Regional Council of Stuttgart, the German Federation Ministry of Traffic, and Lufthansa training for the military reserves in 1956 retiring in 1969 and the death of his son in 1990.

Oral history interview with Fritz Moses

Fritz Moses, born in Strelen, Germany in Silesia in 1929, discusses his childhood in Strelen his family life relations among Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish people in Strelen his father's pastry shop the reasons his father joined the Nazi party in 1931 changes in his town under the Nazi government difficulties his family experienced because of their last name the Aryanization of local Jewish businesses watching his grandmother buy formerly Jewish furniture from the bank his education his memories of a Jewish schoolmate the disappearance of Jewish neighbors becoming a leader in the Jungvolk and the Hitler Youth his memories of the Nazi boycott against Jewish businesses joining a research institute in August 1944 instead of the military returning to his family and being conscripted to dig trenches on the eastern front in September 1944 wanting to join the militia (Volkssturm), but not being allowed to by his father being expelled from Silesia as an ethnic German with his mother and sisters being in Dresden during its bombing working on a farm in Lower Bavaria herding cattle and seeing death marches passing from Mauthasen to Melk the arrival of American troops and the end of the war his father's return from an American prisoner of war camp his postwar career as an accountant working with a Jewish man in the 1960s and confronting the history of the Third Reich his largely Jewish clientele hearing stories of the Holocaust from his clients deciding to name his son Daniel and his book Strelen: Memories of a Small Silesian Town and Her Jewish Citizens.

Oral history interview with Gunter Siemeister

Gunter Siemeister, born in 1921 in Neuwied, Germany, describes his family and childhood, including his membership to the Jungvolk beginning in 1933 and his education how two of his Jewish classmates did not return to school one year, and his assumption that they had emigrated his friendly relations with a Jewish family who owned an animal feed store how the family’s furniture was thrown out of windows on Kristallnacht joining the military in 1939 his appointment to lieutenant in 1941 his encounter with Jewish slave laborers in Minsk, Belarus who were assigned to renovate a block of housing for his army unit in 1942 the soldiers’ treatment of the laborers receiving orders to participate in the defense of the surrounding area of Auschwitz his encounter with a group of Jews in Auschwitz after officers abandoned the camp being present in Auschwitz during the camp’s liberation by the Russian Army his view that aspects of Auschwitz had been constructed to discredit Germany his belief that people from Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine came to work in Germany voluntarily his argument that a documentary about Buchenwald was created to make Germans look like criminals his time as a Soviet prisoner of war from 1945 to 1949 and his life after the war. Frau Siemeister, born in Germany, describes seeing Hitler during his visit to Weimar her father who took a tour of Buchenwald and claimed that the camp was clean and well run and that there were no prisoners from Weimar there her understanding that only political prisoners were sent to Buchenwald a Jewish family who lived in her town and managed to immigrate to Argentina her father’s assistance to an elderly Jewish couple the internment of her parents after the war and her anger about a brochure about her hometown which describes the persecution of Jewish there during World War II.

Oral history interview with Friedrich-Karl Scheibe

Friedrich-Karl Scheibe, born in 1931 in Suhl-Heinrichs in Germany, describes his family and early childhood his father’s membership in the Nazi Party his father and uncle’s service in the first World War the night of Kristallnacht during which the town’s synagogue was destroyed antisemitic propaganda in Nazi-run newspapers the reaction of his parents and others to the outbreak of war in 1939 the pride his parents took in lands gained under Hitler an incident in which three bombs fell in the forest outside of his town the increasing number of death announcements during the war the sight of a column of Jewish people guarded by SA soldiers who shouted commands the presence of hundreds of onlookers who watched the column pass the Jewish families in his town who emigrated from Germany his membership in the Hitler Youth in 1941 the focus of the Hitler Youth on preliminary military training, not antisemitism encountering concentration camp inmates being marched to their deaths the inhumane treatment of the prisoners by the SS and his resulting disillusionment with the Nazi Party the defeated German Army withdrawing through his town the arrival of American soldiers who were admired, and the arrival of Soviet soldiers who were disliked his understanding of Buchenwald and the belief that it was used for the punishment of dissenters not being aware of extermination camps his contact with foreign workers his assessment that the treatment of Russian prisoners was inhumane and militarily pointless and living under repressive measures from the Soviets postwar.

Oral history interview with Herbert Schroder

Herber Schroder, born in 1923 in Hohengorsdorf, Germany, describes his family background his membership in the Hitler Youth joining the SS in 1941 as a member of a fighting unit of the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler his infantry training in Berlin and training as a motorist in Sennelager his stationing in France in 1942 his stationing in Kharkov, Ukraine in January 1943 gathering women for forced labor in Germany disarmament in Italy in July 1943 fighting Yugoslavian partisan groups and Soviet soldiers in October 1943 members of his unit giving their lives to rescue Wehrmacht soldiers stationing in Belgium in 1944 fighting against American soldiers at Caen, France in 1944 fighting in Hungary his war injury and time in a military hospital in Dresden, Germany surviving the bombing of Dresden his attempt to find the SS administration outside of Dresden so that he could return to his unit traveling to Berlin and visiting his parents arriving at his unit in Hungary his arrest at the river Enz his imprisonment in the former concentration camp of Ebensee by American soldiers conditions of the camp his transfer to Mittenwald, and then Grafenwohr in the winter of 1945 his release in 1945 and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Dieter Schutze

Dieter Schutze, born in 1934 in Angermünde, Germany, describes his family and childhood his father’s draft into the German Army in 1939 beginning school in Angermünde in 1940 the establishment of a prisoner of war camp in the garden of his parents' resort, and the French and Soviet inmates kept there his entry into the Jungvolk the bombing of his town in 1944 hiding during the bombing in the basement of a neighbor who was rumored to be Jewish attending a Nazi-run boarding school in Feldafing, Germany from 1944 to 1945 the arrival of American troops in Feldafing fleeing to the British occupation zone locating his grandparents and siblings in Mücheln, Germany in 1945 the Red Army taking his mother the internment of his father in the American or British occupation zone and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Wolfdieter Skottke

Wolfdieter Skottke, born in 1920 in Stettin, Germany (Szczecin, Poland), describes his family members and their political affiliations joining the Jungvolk in 1930 attending the Berlin Olympic games in 1936 the burning of the synagogue in Stettin his friendly relations with his Jewish neighbors his enlistment into the Wehrmacht moving to Dessau, Germany to attend a military school being stationed in Africa receiving military decorations participating in the war in Crete, Greece attending training in Dessau to become an officer his participation in the invasion of France being wounded while placing landmines returning to his hometown in Germany where his mother cared for him his promotion to first lieutenant in 1944 entering the Fuhrerrserve Zossen passing by the concentration camp Sachsenhausen his arranged marriage his promotion to captain in 1945 his imprisonment by the United States Army in Stettin his transfer to a camp in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany denazification in Bremen, Germany in 1946 and his professional and family life after the war.

Oral history interview with Wolfgang Halang

Wolfgang Halang, born in 1925 in Leipzig, Germany, describes his family background and education antisemitism in the classroom the election of Hitler the construction of the autobahns the flight of Jewish families from Liepzig the deportation of Jewish families, who were marched through the streets of Leipzig anti-Jewish pogroms such as Kristallnacht his entry into the Waffen SS in 1942 his time at a training camp in Debica, Poland the concentration camp in Debica his assignment to the Eastern Front with the SS Wiking Division in Ryszow to help rescue a surrounded army unit his deployment to the area around Maslowitz, Czechoslovakia (Málovice, Czech Republic) being wounded and staying in a hospital in Warsaw, Poland crimes committed by Soviet soldiers fighting partisan units fleeing Soviet forces to Bernburg, Germany crossing illegally into the American occupation zone to escape the Soviets his work as a truck driver for American occupation forces in Kassel, Germany from 1945 to 1947 his views on Russians and Eastern Europeans his early misunderstanding that concentration camps were only for labor and his life after the war, including his time in South Africa.

Oral history interview with Samuel Brand

Samuel Brand, born in 1914 in Kraków, Poland, discusses supporting his family by taking over his mother’s hardware store after the death of his father the order for Jews to report to a central depot his refusal to obey the order, resulting in a family argument his illegal residency in the Kraków ghetto fleeing the ghetto his arrest for possession of counterfeit Aryan documentation his imprisonment in the Korczyna concentration camp his work detail as part of the camp’s disinfection squad the brutal treatment of camp inmates his escape from the concentration camp after he faked his suicide his arrest and imprisonment in Poland receiving harsh treatment from the Poles the death of his family members in the Holocaust and his life after the war, during which he lived in Israel, Vienna, Belgium, and Frankfurt.

Oral history interview with Egmont Fortun

Egmont Fortun, born in 1921 in Arnstadt, Germany, describes his family and their political beliefs living in Grossbreitenbach, Germany and then moving to Berlin, Germany the disappearance of his two Jewish classmates his membership in the Young Folk of the Hitler Youth from 1934 to 1939 joining the army in 1940 volunteering for the position of cadet officer being stationed in Bamberg, Germany in the substitute armored troop division his fighting in the Russian campaign getting wounded and then being stationed in France volunteering to fight in the Africa Corps being stationed in Naples, Italy for three months being stationed in Tunisia in 1942 being held as a prisoner of war in Egypt in 1943 by British soldiers his release from a prisoner of war camp in Munz in 1948 his decorations of honor and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Eduard Galonska

Eduard Galonska, born in 1921 in Gleiwitz in Poland, describes his family background his initial enthusiasm for national socialism his membership in the Jungvolk (German Youth) until his induction into the army in 1940 his reasons for joining the military his apprenticeship in a technical branch from 1937 to 1940 studying for one semester at an engineering school in Kattowitz, Poland being deployed in 1941 as an anti-tank specialist serving on the Eastern front, his unit advancing close to Moscow, Russia being sent to a hospital in Breslau, Germany (Wroclaw, Poland) as a result of low body weight his order to open a safe in a concentration camp where he worked quickly and did not notice anything about the circumstances of the camp attaining the rank of cadet and then non-commissioned officer being discharged at the end of the war and going to Harsum and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Gisela Gneist

Gisela Gneist, born in 1930 in Wittenberg, Germany, describes her parents’ unemployment and the appeal of the Nationalist Socialist government for them her membership in the Jungmaedel youth organization from 1940 to 1945, including her leadership role her arrest in 1945 by Soviet forces on suspicion of founding a counter-revolutionary organization her time in prison from 1945 to 1950 and her life after the war, including her release from prison, her time living in Hamburg, Germany, and her role as chairman for the Working Group for the Sachsenhausen Camp from 1945 to 1950.

Oral history interview with Hans Hirschfeld

Hans Hirschfeld, born in 1920 in Hamburg, Germany, describes his family history and their business making women's clothing growing up as the son of a Jewish father and Protestant mother initially favoring National Socialism until he was discriminated against for being half-Jewish leaving school to pursue a trade problems with the family business as a results of boycotts organized by the SA rejection from job training positions because of his half-Jewish status the destruction and expropriation of the family business machinist training for motors at the Borchwart Works completing his apprenticeship in 1941 his employment at the Daimler-Benz Aircraft Engine Plant in Granitz concealing his Jewish heritage the arrest of his father by the Gestapo in 1941 the release of his father from Brunsbuettel concentration camp because of his mixed marriage the arrest of his family and imprisonment of his cousins in Sachsenhausen concentration camp his time in Oslebshausen penitentiary the arrest of his father in 1943 and his imprisonment in Auschwitz writing a petition for the release of his father, which was denied delivering a package of food and a pair of boots to his father in Auschwitz to show that he and his mother had not forgotten him his transfer to Hamburg to work in the single engine aircraft department his transfer to work in the fighter aircraft program evacuation in 1943 from Auschwitz to Buchenwald the death of his father in Buchenwald the imprisonment of his brother in the Hamburg Neuengamme concentration camp his brother’s death in the camp attributing his own survival to his profession working for the restitution of the property of his family after 1945 and his life after the war, including his work, marriage, life in the United States, and return to Hamburg.

Oral history interview with Hans Rudolf Meyer

Hans Rudolf Meyer, born in 1921 in Giessen, Germany, describes his family history his membership to the Jungvolk where he held a leadership role his early understanding that the concentration camps were for reeducation the sight of burning synagogues on Reichsprogromnacht his graduation from high school in 1940 joining the army in 1940 being stationed in Africa feeling fortunate that he did not have to go to the Soviet Union his status as a prisoner of war under the British from 1943 to 1948 his life after the war and his encounters with Jews that shaped his understanding of the Third Reich and the Holocaust.

Oral history interview with Alfred Neumann

Alfred Neumann, born in 1922 in Kirschweiler, Germany, describes his family, childhood, and education his membership in the Jungvolk and air wing of the Hitler Youth despite his father's rejection of Nazi ideology the immigration of a Jewish family in his village to Luxemburg the death of his father in 1939 enlisting in the Wehrmacht in 1941 his training in Neuruppin, Germany as a tank grenadier his promotion to Corporal in 1942 his officer training in Cottbus and promotion to the rank of non-commissioned officer his promotion of Sergeant O. A., and then lieutenant in the reserves training enlisted men in Cottbus, Germany his deployment to the front in the summer of 1943 as an officer his assignment as a company officer to a training battalion in Guben in 1944 after being wounded his transfer to Koenigsberg (Kaliningrad, Russia) at the end of 1944 and his participation in the Russian offensive his promotion to First Lieutenant in the Reserves in 1945 an incident in which he almost threw a grenade into a house until he saw a child in the house his war decorations his discharge from the Wehrmacht in August of 1945 avaoiding the denazification process his recognition that his faith in the Third Reich was wrong and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Kurt Noack

Kurt Noack, born in 1930 in Gross-Koelzig in Germany, describes his family and his education his membership in the Jungvolk and preliminary military training by the Hitler Youth his membership in the Volksturm in 1945 his arrest by the Red Army in 1945 under suspicion of belonging to the Werwolf organization his imprisonment in the concentration camps of Jarnlitz and Buchenwald and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Kurt Schaefer

Kurt Schaefer, born in 1926 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, describes his family and education his family’s anti-Nazi orientation a teacher requiring that he and his fellow students participate in the Reichsprogrom night (Kristallnacht) seeing Jews being marched through the Niederrad city borough on the way to labor his membership and leadership roles in the Jungvolk of the Hitler Youth his role as a helper at an anti-aircraft battery in 1943 being drafted into the armed forces in 1944 entering the navy at Kiel, Germany being stationed in Denmark his training as a radioman on the island of Sylt his stationing in Istria for maintenance of radio contact on the Adriatic hearing stories on the radio of the atrocities committed by German forces being a prisoner of war until 1946 and his life after the war during which he has taught about the Third Reich to schoolchildren.

Oral history interview with Ruprecht von Poncet

Ruprecht von Poncet, born in 1929 in Gross-Koelzig, Germany, describes his family’s political orientation his membership in the Hitler Youth and attendance at a Hitler Youth pre-military school his promotion in 1944 to platoon leader his recruitment to a military preparatory camp in Guben, Germany for Operation Werwolf applying for entry to the navy rather than the SS his membership in the Volkssturm in early 1945, including his stationing in Gross Koelzig, and then Tschernitz, Germany his arrest in 1945 by Soviet soldiers under suspicion of Werwolf involvement his imprisonment from 1945 to 1948, and then flight west and his life after the war, including his employment and family events.

Oral history interview with Rochus Misch

Rochus Misch, born in 1917 in Altschallersdorf, Germany (Starý Šaldorf, Czech Republic), describes his family life and background, including his apprenticeship as an interior decorator and sign painter being sent to Berlin, Germany to paint one of the Olympic sites during which he saw Adolf Hitler and his military entourage his work as a painter being drafted in 1937 to the Waffen-SS his deployment to Austria during the annexation training in Berchtesgaden, Germany in 1939 his deployment to Poland being wounded near Warsaw returning to the barracks in Lichterfelde, Germany being recommended by his company commander to work as a courier for Hitler's personal staff his work contacting personal guests for Hitler and acting as a supplementary bodyguard not being in the room with Hitler during dinners or meetings the constant presence of a military escort the technologically advanced nature of Hitler's telephone the flight and capture of Rudolf Hess in England in 1941 traveling with Hitler a conversation regarding Russia between Hitler and General Field Marshal Paulus, in which Hitler insisted that Paulus remain in Stalingrad his marriage in 1942 the incarceration of a family friend in Sachsenahusen, for whom he was able to secure a release the construction of a bunker to withstand an air-raid at the Reich Chancellery in 1943 the plan to assassinate Hitler in 1944 conditions in Hitler's bunker attempting to get his wife and daughter out of Berlin in 1945 his realization that the war was lost hearing about Hitler’s suicide the sight of Hitler and Eva Braun’s dead bodies fear of death by the Gestapo being ordered by General Krebs to call the Soviets receiving permission to leave the Reich Chancellery attempting to flee west to escape the Soviets his capture by Soviet soldiers and transfer to Moscow for interrogation his refusal to testify in the Nuremburg trials and returning to the Soviet Union for hard labor until his release in 1954.

Oral history interview with Heinz Beck

Heinz Beck, born in 1925 in Stuttgart, Germany, describes his family and childhood his membership in the Jungvolk of the Hitler Youth his time in the Reichsarbeitsdienst in Tannheim, Austria his military assignment to the infantry in 1943 his deployment to Fontainbleau, France his stationing in the Ukraine in 1944 the experiences of the average soldier his promotion to the position of corporal retreating on the Eastern Front antisemitic speeches made by a sapper witnessing the bombing of Dresden in August 1944 his realization that Germany would lose the war the German withdrawal from the Soviet offensive in 1945 receiving a head wound and staying in a hospital in Berlin, Germany leaving Berlin because he knew it would be attacked being stationed in Marburg, Germany to defend villages his capture and imprisonment by American soldiers receiving help from a Jewish man working as a plate washer in the American camp near Nuremberg, Germany his release and journey home and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Hans-Georg Borck

Hans-Georg Borck, born in 1921 in Germany, describes his family background his membership in the Scharnhorst-Jugend in 1931, which became integrated with the Hitler Youth in 1937 results of the Reichskristallnacht, including the broken windows of the local synagogue joining the military as a pioneer taking part in the first attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 the death of a lieutenant from a partisan good contacts with civilians in occupied countries helping villagers repair damage to their homes his time in a school for pioneers and his promotion receiving decorations for the risky destruction of two Russian armors becoming an adjutant of the commander disliking this job and becoming sick recovering at home for six weeks becoming a company commander and leading a troop of older and more experienced soldiers receiving a severe injury in 1943 and spending a year in military hospitals hearing about Jews in concentration camps, particularly in Dachau being posted in an educational training camp in Silesia where he stayed until March of 1945 a special assignment that resulted in his surrender to American forces in Arolsen, Germany his release in September 1945 and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Marguerite Brüggemann

Marguerite Bruggemann, born in 1921 in Bruges, Belgium, describes her family background and education meeting her future husband, a German sapper becoming engaged to him and moving to Germany in 1942 being placed by the local labor bureau as an interpreter for the French workers and nurses in a forced labor camp the lack of medicine in the camp her assignment to give encouragement to the workers the camp containing laborers from France, the Netherlands, Belgium, the Soviet Union, and Poland the western and eastern workers being kept separate from one another being denounced for saying that the Allies would win the war and receiving punishment from the mayor the execution of three Soviet prisoners of war by local policemen testifying about the forced labor camp in postwar trials and her life after the war.

Oral history interview with Karl C

Karl C., born in 1924 in Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic), describes his family and background joining the Marine Hitler Youth in 1938 after the German invasion volunteering for the Marine in 1940 enlisting in the army and going to Eckernförde, Germany in 1941 his ship sinking in 1942 and then in 1944 captivity by British forces in 1945 traveling to Bavaria and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Georg Diers

Georg Diers, born in 1921 in Wiefelstede, Germany, describes his family background and education his membership in the Scharnhorst-Jugend, the youth organization of the Stahlhelm, later integrated into the Hitler Youth volunteering for the Waffen-SS in 1939 his assigment to the Eastern Front in the Caucasus in 1941 being wounded near Grozny, Russia in September 1942 and staying in a military hospital in Vienna, Austria returning to the front in Yugoslavia his marriage in 1944 fighting at the Eastern Front against the Soviets, including the Soviet ring around Berlin, Germany taking orders from Joseph Goebbles after the suicide of Hitler assisting in the destruction of Hitler's body after his suicide breaking through Soviet lines into the center of Berlin disguising himself as a civilian and walking to the west his imprisonment and sentence to death by Soviet authorities joining another group of prisoners to go to a work camp forced labor in Moscow, Russia his return to Germany in 1949 and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Klaus D

Klaus D, born in 1916 in Silesia, Poland, describes his family background and education moving to Danzig in 1935 to study engineering science joining the SS Heimwehr Danzig (Gdańsk, Poland) in 1939 his deployment to France in 1940 returning to Germany to the Ersatzbatallion in Breslau (Wroclaw, Poland) being assigned to Auschwitz as a guard serving on the ramp working in the political department his marriage in 1943 working in a factory after his time at Auschwitz in 1944 fleeing to Munich, Germany in 1945 under a false name and his life after the war, including his work, second marriage, and children.

Oral history interview with Dietrich Elsner and Hannelore Elsner

Dietrich Elsner, born in 1924 in Halle an der Saale, Germany, describes his family background and childhood joining the Jungvolk in 1936 his reasons for wanting to join the Hitler Youth the disappearance of three Jewish classmates in the late 1930s his training in his uncle’s construction business which used British prisoners of war as labor his uncle renting out machines and workers for the construction of what became Auschwitz III (Monowitz) the construction of Nebenlager the use of inmates at the construction zone the shooting of those inmates unable to work building roads how the Nazi youth organizations trained members to be brutal and accepting of violence his draft into the army in 1942 his deployment to France experiencing his first attack, living in huts, and dealing with lice in 1943 and 1944 becoming a lieutenant in 1944 preparing to fight partisans on the Eastern Front his role as a company leader while withdrawing from the Eastern front being wounded in the head in 1945 returning to his company in Czechia, where he was taken as a prisoner of war by the Czech military a Soviet officer who prevented Czech soldiers from shooting him and his crew his time as a Soviet prisoner of war his life after his release and his flight to West Germany.

Oral history interview with Wolf-Heinrich von Finckenstein

Wolf-Heinrich von Finckenstein, born in 1918 in Lower Silesia, describes his family and childhood his membership in the Hitler Youth in 1930, against the wishes of his parents passing his Abitur in 1937 and deciding to become an officer starting officer school in 1938 his deployment to France and Yugoslavia in 1940 the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 as a tank officer being wounded near Dynaburg, and then spending two years at home as an adjutant returning to the front in 1943 and receiving another injury his imprisonment by the Soviet forces in 1945 his time in internment camps in the Ukraine near Kiev his release in 1949 and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Günter Halm

Günter Halm, born in 1922 in Elze, Germany, describes his family background and childhood his membership in the Deutsche Jungvolk and the Hitler Youth his apprenticeship as a machinist in 1939 passing his examination as a schlosser geselle (journeyman) in 1941 volunteering for the tank grenadiers and joining them in 1942 receiving decorations for his performance in a battle with the British taking an officer course in 1943 and 1944 his promotion to lieutenant his deployment to France in 1944 to fight the D-Day invasion his capture in August 1944 by American soldiers being brought to the United States where he was held in a camp near Alpha, Oklahoma being brought to La Motte to work in 1945 his release and return home in 1946 finding his parents alive and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Theodor Jakubowski and Katharina Jakubowski

Theodor Jakubowski, born in 1924 in Dortmund Hörde, Germany, describes his childhood in Dortmund Hörde the profession and political leanings of his father joining the Hitler Youth against his father’s wishes his apprenticeship as a toolmaker his drafting into the marines in 1941 as a radio operator seeing the father of his Jewish best friend laboring in the harbor in Latvia in a concentration camp uniform his capture by the Red Army in 1945 laboring in several internment camps returning home in 1949 and his life after the war. Katharina Jakubowski, born in 1929 in Dortmund-Aplerbeck, Germany, describes her family background the denunciation of her father in 1941 which led to his imprisonment and beating in Dortmund her father’s sentence to jail in Werdohl, and then in the Esterwegen concentration camp financial difficulties of her family Reichspogromnacht the brutalities of the Gestapo and the SS the liberation of her father by the American Army and her life after the war.

Oral history interview with Paul Korte

Paul Korte, born in 1921 in Lüchtringen, Germany, describes his family background and education the beating and torturing of a Jewish doctor on Kristallnacht being drafted into the armored regiment in 1940 and training as a radio operator in Hamm and Herford his experiences on the Eastern Front where he found support from Ukrainian and Russian townspeople his imprisonment by the Red Army in 1945, including his time in different concentration camps in Lithuania and the Soviet Union his release in 1948 and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Vagner Kristensen

Vagner Kristensen, born 1927 on Fyn Isle, Denmark, describes his family joining a Danish right wing youth organization in 1937 volunteering for the Waffen SS in 1943 traveling with his Danish unit to Hamburg fighting in France being wounded fighting on the Eastern Front withdrawing from the Eastern Front to Germany suppressing the Warsaw ghetto uprising the initial Danish support for German policy, which shifted during occupation going into hiding at the end of the war in Germany his sentencing in Denmark in 1945 for treason his parents cutting off their relations from him because of his support of Germany his time in prison from 1945 to 1947 joining an illegal group called Stille Hilfe, which helped condemned Nazi war criminals leave Germany and go to Argentina his life after the war, during which he founded right-wing organizations and an Israeli radio station that revealed his pro-Nazi work.

Oral history interview with Klaus-Christoph Marloh

Klaus-Christoph Marloh, born in 1923 in Hamburg, Germany, describes his father’s support for National Socialism attending a boarding school in Plön, Germany, which became a Nazi affiliated institution moving to Celle, Germany in 1939 leaving the Hitler Youth and joining the local SS in 1939 participating in searches at night for escaped prisoners and army deserters, and punishing Polish slave laborers in surrounding villages volunteering for the military in 1941 and becoming a cadet officer in the navy serving on a submarine until 1944 experiencing the bombing of Hamburg witnessing the sinking of the MV Wilhelm Gustloff by a Soviet submarine serving on a second submarine in 1945 surrendering to the British Army in 1945 in Norway his internment as a prisoner of war his return to his home in Berleburg, Germany in 1945 the arrest and internment of his father by the British forces avoiding arrest and internment by concealing his past activities with the SS and Jungvolk and his life after the war, including his work helping the relatives of imprisoned Nazi war criminals.

Oral history interview with Hans Mehrle

Hans Mehrle, born in 1922 in a Swabian village in Germany, describes his family and childhood joining the Jungvolk in 1933 and then the Hitler Youth in 1934 joining the army in 1940 his basic training in Brno, Slovakia (Czech Republic) his deployment to the Westwall and participation in the invasion of France serving on the demarcation lines in France on the border between occupied and Vichy France his assignment to the occupation regiment in Paris, France his assignment to the Eastern Front in November of 1941 being wounded in Gotenhafen (Gdynia, Poland) in 1945 his evacuation by ship to Denmark becoming a prisoner of war under the British forces his release and return home in 1946 and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Kurt Meyer

Kurt Meyer, born in Germany, describes his experiences as an SS officer the wartime actions of the Third Reich his positive impression of Dachau concentration camp, where he visited as a cadet the Riga ghetto fighting partisans in the Balkans by driving an armored car through villages gratitude from Croats and Albanians for protecting them against the Serbs fighting in France and in the Slovakian mountains and his point of view that the Holocaust was a British invention.

Oral history interview with Meinhard von Ow

Meinhard von Ow, born in 1922 in Germany, describes his family background and education his Catholic upbringing his family's dislike of Hitler joining the Marianen Studenten kongregation, an organization of Jesuits his father being fired from his job after making anti-Nazi remarks joining the Hitler Youth in 1936 entering the military in 1940 his assignment as a radio operator and his time in Reims, France, where he saw many refugees his transfer to the Eastern Front in 1941 being wounded near Charkov and staying in a hospital attending military school in Vienna, Austria in 1943 his deployment to Greece the withdrawal of German forces and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Albert Petig

Albert Petig, born in 1929 in Brügge (Bruges), Belgium, describes his family and childhood his father who was a communist his membership in the Jungvolk in 1939 his membership in the Hitler Youth for a short period in 1943 his apprenticeship in 1943 which he was unable to finish because of the war working as an unskilled laborer in construction firms his deployment into the military reserves in 1944, and then the fire department of the Hitler Youth and his life after the war, including his involvement in the Communist Party.

Oral history interview with Dorothea Petrikowski

Dorothea Petrikowski, born in Oberhausen-Sterkrade, Germany, describes her family background and Catholic upbringing her apprenticeship in a Jewish-owned textile store in 1935 antisemitic graffiti on the walls and windows of the shop the destruction of the store during Kristallnacht in 1938 how some of the shop’s employees assisted in the destruction her attempt to help the store’s owners the flight of the store’s owners, some of whom were later killed in Auschwitz the flight or arrest of other Jewish business owners the Aryanization of Jewish-owned businesses her conscription as an assistant to the Wehrmacht in 1943 returning home in 1945 and her life after the war.

Oral history interview with Irmgard Raymann

Irmgard Raymann, born in 1926 in Oberhausen, Germany, describes her family and education the political leanings of her family, including her father’s membership in the Communist Party not being permitted by her father to join the Bund Deutscher Mädel the sentencing of her father to hard labor in a forge in 1940 her father’s death in 1941 working as a housemaid in 1941 because she could not finding an apprenticeship working as a seamstress in 1942 being drafted in 1945 to the Wehrmacht to work as a radio operator returning home in 1945 after the war and her life following the war, including her work and marriage.

Oral history interview with Heinz R

Heinz R, born in 1923 in Willemsburg, Germany, describes his family and education his draft in 1940 to the labor force and serving in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany his transfer to the Todt Organisation in France, where he built barracks on the Weser River his draft into the Wehrmacht in 1942 his training as a telephone worker and assignment to the Eastern Front his participation in the Battle of Stalingrad the amputation of his leg after being wounded his assignment to work in a Wehrmacht administrative office and his promotion to a non-commissioned officer his release from military service in 1945 and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Heinz R

Heinz R, born in 1926 in Wriezen, Germany, describes his family and education his membership in the Jungvolk and the Hitler Youth the death of his brother during the Battle of Stalingrad enlisting in the Reich Labor Front in Austria in 1943, and then in the Wehrmacht his enrollment in cadet school in Kolberg, Germany, and his assignment to the 5th Jäger Division in Ulm, Germany stories about the brutal means of combat employed by both sides his transfer to the Eastern Front in 1944 the retreat of the Wehrmacht to East Prussia crimes committed by Soviet soldiers fighting at the Elbe River in 1945 getting wounded and being treated in a hospital in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany being taken prisoner by British forces his release three months later his return to his parents’ home in Wriezen, Germany and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Max Rehbein

Max Rehbein, born in 1918 in Cologne, Germany, describes his family and education his parents’ many Jewish friends the political leanings of his parents joining the Hitler Youth in 1933 joining the air arm of the Hitler Youth in 1936 enlisting in the Reich Labor Front in 1938 in Bavaria, Germany volunteering for the Wehrmacht his training as an army engineer taking part in fighting in France in 1940 participating in exercises in the north of France in connection with Operation Seeloewe his transfer to the Eastern Front in 1941 his assignment in 1942 as an instructor at the Engineering School in Dessau, Germany losing some of his enthusiasm for the Nazi party upon learning about concentration camps and the disappearance of his Jewish friends his promotion to captain returning to the Eastern Front in 1943 participating in the retreat to Koenigsberg, including being wounded and receiving decorations his transfer between military hospitals in 1945 becoming a prisoner of war by British forces his release and return to Berlin and his life after the war, including his work and marriage.

Oral history interview with Remy Schrijnen

Remy Schrijnen, born in December 1921, describes his family his life after WWII began meeting a soldier who had a great influence on his life volunteering as a laborer when Belgium surrendered Being sent to Kempten im Allgau, Germany, where he worked for the railway and lived with a German family his efforts to join the Waffen-SS and finally being accepted in 1942 as a messenger his unit fighting on the eastern front details about his unit’s movement and combat with the partisans being injured several times being in a Belgian prison until 1951 for being in the Waffen-SS being imprisoned from 1953 to 1955 because he had taken part in a demonstration going to Germany in 1962 working as a laborer in Hagen and his thoughts on politics and the Holocaust.

Oral history interview with Margarete S

Margarete S, born in 1921 in Essen, Germany, describes her childhood and family life her father's membership in the Social Democratic Party the burning of the synagogues in Essen in 1938 the destruction of Jewish stores by German soldiers her work in a furniture store in Essen the bombing of her home in 1943 the arrest of her father in 1944 and his deportation to Sachsenhausen concentration camp and then Bergen Belsen concentration camp where he died and her life after the war.

Oral history interview with Lotte Schwab

Lotte Schwab, born in 1922 in Essen, Germany, describes her family, childhood, and education working at the Krupp Company in a personnel office beginning in 1939 the persecution of friends her marriage in 1944 and her life after the war.

Oral history interview with Reinhard S

Reinhard S, born in 1924 in Stuttgart, Germany, describes his family, childhood, and education his membership in the Jungvolk not being permitted to join the Hitlerjugend because of his asthma enlisting in the work service in 1942 joining the Wehrmacht his assignment to an anti-aircraft unit in Hamburg, Germany the bombing of Hamburg in 1943 participating in the Ardennes offensive in France in 1944 his capture by American forces and time as a prisoner of war his release in 1946 and return home and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Jürgen Stech

Jürgen Stech, born in 1921 in Jena, Germany, describes his family and education his participation in the Reichsarbeitsdienst his enlistment in 1941 and participation in the war on the Eastern Front the German withdrawl from the Eastern Front in 1944 and 1945 his capture by Soviet forces and escape to territory occupied by American forces his movement between Soviet and American occupied territory and his life after the war, including his work in a German-Israel friendship organization.

Oral history interview with Alfred Wenck

Alfred Wenck, born in 1921 in Marschacht, Germany, describes his family and childhood his membership in the Jungvolk and Hitlerjugend his enlistment in the Wehrmacht in 1941 fighting on the Eastern Front in the Ukraine and in Greece his role in the Battle of Leros his wounding and time in hospitals in Vienna, Austria and Lüneburg, Germany his work at the end of the war, including his positions as a guard and a teacher returning to his parents' home in Stove in 1945 and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Konrad Wilden

Konrad Wilden, born in 1918 in Köln (Cologne), Germany, describes his family, childhood, and membership in the Social Democratic Party his enlistment into the Reichsarbeitsdienst in 1936 volunteering for the paratroopers and being wounded during a military exercise, resulting in his discharge from the military his drafting into the Wehrmacht in 1940 and his refusal to join because of his wound his refusal to work in an armaments factory going into hiding because of the threat of arrest living under false names in hotels and working as a boxer in a fairgrounds his arrest in 1944 and time in several concentrations camps, including Natzweiler-Struthof, Treis, Mittelbau-Dora, and Bergen Belsen and his life after the war.

Oral history interview with Heinz Jander

Heinz Jander, born in Germany, describes his studies in medicine and time in the United States prior to WWII his experiences in the United States as a German citizen his decision to return to Germany in the event of war his draft into the German army his role installing telephone wires in Posen (Poznań, Poland) the poor treatment of Polish civilians by German soldiers professors of medicine from his medical studies in Strasbourg, who conducted human experiments in the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp his graduation in 1944 and order to report to the village of Mühldorf, Germany for defense against American forces his transfer to Chieming, Germany by American forces his reactions when first confronted with the cruelties of the Holocaust and his life after the war.


Player Value--Batting

View Complete Notes on Fielding Data

  • Pre-1916 SB & CS data for catchers is estimated from catcher assists, games started and opposition stolen bases.
  • From 1916 on SB, CS, Pickoff, & WP data for catchers and pitchers is taken from play-by-play accounts in the retrosheet files. There are several hundred games without pbp from 1916 to 1972 and for those we may not have any data.
  • CG & GS come from the retrosheet data and should be complete and pretty accurate from 1901 on.
  • Innings played (like SB and CS) come from the retrosheet play-by-play data and should be considered mostly complete from 1916 to 1972 and complete from then on.
  • Stats (PO,A,G, etc) for LF-CF-RF positions (since 1901) is taken from play-by-play or box score data as available.
  • Stats (PO,A,G,etc) for C,P,1B,2B,3B,SS,OF positions is taken from the official reported totals and may have been corrected at various times since their publication.
  • For detailed information on which games retrosheet is missing play-by-play from 1916 to 1972, please see their most wanted games list
  • For detailed information on the availability of data on this site by year, see our data coverage page

MLDI Course History

In 1978, George E. Gantner Jr., M.D., professor of pathology and director of the Division of Forensic and Environmental Pathology at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine, recognized the need for a basic, comprehensive lay death investigator training course.

At that time, there was a critical shortage of American Board of Pathology certified forensic pathologists in the United States and more populous communities were choosing to become medical examiner systems, replacing the age old coroner systems.

Realizing that there was a need for independent death investigations to be performed in conjunction with law enforcement by competent lay practitioners with specialized knowledge and who had acquired advanced investigational skills, Dr. Gantner and Mary Fran Ernst organized the Medicolegal Death Investigator Training Course at Saint Louis University.

The course was then, and still is, designed to provide the basic medical, legal and investigative knowledge and skills necessary for a lay person to perform complete, independent, scientific death investigations.

The first class was held in October, 1978 with 18 registrants from the St. Louis City and County Medical Examiner's offices and from the newly established Chicago (Cook County) Medical Examiner's Office. It has been conducted three times each year since.

SLU's medicolegal death investigation course has become the major training ground for lay death investigators. More than 13,000 people have graduated from the program from 48 states, Canada and many foreign countries since 1978.

The course focuses on the 29 essential skills and standards of practice identified in the development of the Death Investigation: A Guide for the Scene Investigator, published by the National Institute of Justice.

The original course was conducted over a five-day period and consisted of eight lecturers speaking on 19 forensic-related topics. It now consists of 33 hours of instruction presented during a five-day period by 18 speakers.

The course curriculum is updated annually to ensure that students receive the most current information available in the field of forensic death investigation. This course includes digital access to death investigation forms and additional information on each topic as provided by each instructor.

Since Dr. Gantner's untimely death in 1988, the course has been under the direction of Michael A. Graham, M.D., professor of pathology and co-director for the Division of Forensic and Environmental Pathology at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine and Mary Fran Ernst.

The course is accredited by 15 professional organizations, including the American Medical Association (AMA), American Nurses Association (ANA), Missouri Coroners' and Medical Examiners' Association (MCMEA), Missouri Bar Association, Pennsylvania Coroners Association, Ohio Board of Embalmers and Funeral Directors, and the The Peace Officer Standards and Training Program (POST) Commission.

For investigators who wish maintain their professional competency, an advanced level conference, The Masters Conference, is conducted at Saint Louis University every other July.


Watch the video: IAN - 60 DE ZILE II Official Audio