Polish-Ottoman War, 1620-1621

Polish-Ottoman War, 1620-1621


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Polish-Ottoman War, 1620-1621

The Polish-Ottoman War of 1620-21 was the first conflict between Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire for ninety years. During that period tensions along the border had been raised by Cossack raids into Ottoman territory, but without triggering a war. Tension rose dramatically in 1618-19. In 1618 Osman II assumed power in the Ottoman Empire, aged only 14. He was looking for a chance to win military glory. He was given his chance in 1620, when Gratiani, the ruler of Moldavia, rebelled against Ottoman rule and called for Polish assistance.

Gratiani promised to raise an army 25,000 strong to support the Polish-Lithuanians. In response Hetman Stanislas Zolkiewski led an army of around 8,000 men south into Moldavia. There he was joined by a tiny Moldavian force, only 600 strong.

The combined army was attacked by a somewhat larger Ottoman army near Cecora (or Tutora). The first attack, on 18 September (sometimes referred to as the battle of Jassy), was beaten off, but a running fight developed as the Polish-Lithuanian army attempted to retreat (from 29 September). On 6 October discipline in the Polish-Lithuanian army collapsed. The army was annihilated. Zolkiewski was killed and his severed head taken to the Sultan.

The Poles restored the situation in 1620. A much larger army was raised and send south under the command of Hetman Chodkiewicz. This army was perhaps 75,000 strong (including 40,000 Cossacks), but it was still outnumbered by the Ottoman army, now commanded by Osman II in person. Chodkiewicz fortified his camp, and for five weeks resisted all Ottoman attacks. Finally, he launched a counter-attack using the Polish hussars, wining a minor victory over Osman (battle of Chocim).

In the aftermath of Chocim, Osman II negotiated a peace treaty. The Poles agreed to restrain the Cossacks, Osman promised to stop Tartar raids into Poland. The brief war had disastrous results for both combatants. Gustav Adolf of Sweden invaded Estonia, taking advantage of the absence of the Polish-Lithuanian army in the far south, securing control of much of Livonia. In 1622 Osman was deposed by a Janissary revolt and replaced by his uncle Mustafa, who was almost immediately overthrown in his own turn in favour of Murad IV.


Prelude [ edit | edit source ]

Because of the failure of Commonwealth diplomatic mission to Constantinople, and violations of the Treaty of Busza by both sides (as Cossacks and Tatars continued their raids across the borders), relations between the Ottomans and the Commonwealth rapidly deteriorated in early 1620. Both sides began preparing for war, as neither was quite ready for it at the time. The Ottomans planned for a war in 1621, while the Commonwealth Sejm denied most funds the hetmans had asked for. The Senate's secret council finally decided, convinced by the Habsburgs' representative, to contribute the Commonwealth forces in 1620—even though many members of the Sejm thought that Polish forces were neither sufficient nor fully prepared. Hetman Stanisław Żółkiewski, who was by then over 70 years old (as Commonwealth policy didn't allow for a possibility of forced retirement from government offices such as that of hetman), foresaw the coming confrontation with the Ottoman Empire and decided to meet Ottoman troops on foreign soil, Moldavia being the obvious choice. Β]

Hetmans Zółkiewski and Koniecpolski led the army to Țuțora (Cecora in Polish sources), a commune in Iaşi county, Romania), to fight the Horde of Khan Temir (Kantymir). The army numbered over 9,000 (2,000 infantry but almost no Cossack cavalry), with many regiments being made up of the private forces of magnates Koreckis, Zasławskis, Kazanowskis, Kalinowskis and Potockis. The army entered Moldavia in September. The Moldavian ruler, hospodar Gaspar Graziani, nominally a vassal of the Ottoman Empire, decided to rebel and support the Commonwealth against the Ottomans. Graziani killed the janissaries in Iaşi, imprisoned envoys of Sultan Osman II (who had ordered his removal from power and his transport to Istanbul) and then prepared to flee, but was forced by Żółkiewski to attach his troops to the Polish camp. However, many of the Moldavian boyars left the camp in order to defend their own estates against pillaging by undisciplined Commonwealth magnates' troops, and others decided to wait and see what the outcome appeared to be so they could join the winning side. Consequently, only about 600–1000 rebel Moldavian troops appeared in the Commonwealth camp. Żółkiewski ordered the army to proceed to the fortified camp (standing from previous wars) at Cecora.


Contents

Byzantine Empire Edit

After striking a blow to the weakened Byzantine Empire in 1356 (or in 1358 - disputable due to a change in the Byzantine calendar), (see Süleyman Pasha) which provided it with Gallipoli as a basis for operations in Europe, the Ottoman Empire started its westward expansion into the European continent in the middle of the 14th century.

Bulgarian Empire Edit

In the latter half of the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire proceeded to advance north and west in the Balkans, completely subordinating Thrace and much of Macedonia after the Battle of Maritsa in 1371. Sofia fell in 1382, followed by the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire Tarnovgrad in 1393, and the northwest remnants of the state after the Battle of Nicopolis in 1396.

Serbian Empire Edit

A significant opponent of the Ottomans, the young Serbian Empire, was worn down by a series of campaigns, notably in the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, in which the leaders of both armies were killed, and which gained a central role in Serbian folklore as an epic battle and as the beginning of the end for medieval Serbia. Much of Serbia fell to the Ottomans by 1459, the Kingdom of Hungary made a partial reconquest in 1480, but it fell again by 1499. Territories of Serbian Empire were divided between Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Hungary, with remaining territories being in some sort of a vassal status towards Hungary, until its own conquest.

The defeat in 1456 at the siege of Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade) held up Ottoman expansion into Catholic Europe for 70 years, though for one year (1480–1481) the Italian port of Otranto was taken, and in 1493 the Ottoman army successfully raided Croatia and Styria. [6]

Wars in Albania and Italy Edit

The Ottomans took much of Albania in the 1385 Battle of Savra. The 1444 League of Lezhë briefly restored one part of Albania, until Ottomans captured complete territory of Albania after capture of Shkodër in 1479 and Durrës in 1501.

The Ottomans faced the fiercest resistance from Albanians who gathered around their leader, Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg, son of a feudal Albanian Nobleman, Gjon Kastrioti who also fought against the Ottomans in the Albanian revolt of 1432–1436 led by Gjergj Arianiti. Skanderbeg managed to fend off Ottoman attacks for more than 25 years, culminating at the siege of Shkodra in 1478–79. It has been argued that Albanian resilience halted the Ottoman advance along the Eastern flank of the Western Civilization, saving the Italian peninsula from Ottoman conquest. During this period, many Albanian victories were achieved like the Battle of Torvioll, Battle of Otonetë, siege of Krujë, Battle of Polog, Battle of Ohrid, Battle of Mokra, Battle of Oranik 1456 and many other battles, culminating in the Battle of Albulena in 1457 where the Albanian Army under Skanderbeg won a decisive victory over the Ottomans. In 1465 Ballaban's Campaign against Skanderbeg took place. Its goal was to crush the Albanian Resistance, but it was not successful and it ended in an Albanian victory. With the death of Skanderbeg on the 17th of January 1468, the Albanian Resistance began to fall. After the death of Skanderbeg, the Albanian Resistance was led by Lekë Dukagjini from 1468 until 1479, but it didn't have the same success as before. Merely two years after the collapse of the Albanian resistance in 1479, Sultan Mehmet II launched an Italian campaign, which failed thanks to Christian recapture of Otranto and Sultan's death in 1481.

Conquest of Bosnia Edit

The Ottoman Empire first reached Bosnia in 1388 where they were defeated by Bosnian forces in the Battle of Bileća and then were forced to retreat. [7] After the fall of Serbia in 1389 Battle of Kosovo, where the Bosnians participated through Vlatko Vuković, the Turks began various offensives against the Kingdom of Bosnia. The Bosnians defended themselves but without much success. The Bosnians resisted strongly in the Bosnian Royal castle of Jajce (the siege of Jajce), where the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomašević tried to repel the Turks. The Ottoman army conquered Jajce after a few months in 1463 and executed the last King of Bosnia, ending Medieval Bosnia. [8] [9] [b]

The House of Kosača held Herzegovina until 1482. It took another four decades for the Ottomans to defeat the Hungarian garrison at Jajce Fortress in 1527. Bihać and the westernmost areas of Bosnia were finally conquered by the Ottomans in 1592. [8] [9]

Croatia Edit

After the fall of the Kingdom of Bosnia into Ottoman hands in 1463, the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Croatia remained unprotected, the defense of which was left to Croatian gentry who kept smaller troops in the fortified border areas at their own expense. The Ottomans meanwhile reached the river Neretva and, having conquered Herzegovina (Rama) in 1482, they encroached upon Croatia, skillfully avoiding the fortified border towns. A decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Krbava Field shook all of Croatia. However, it did not dissuade the Croats from making persistent attempts at defending themselves against the attacks of the superior Ottoman forces. After almost two hundred years of Croatian resistance against the Ottoman Empire, victory in the Battle of Sisak marked the end of Ottoman rule and the Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War. The Viceroy's army, chasing the fleeing remnants at Petrinja in 1595, sealed the victory.

Conquest of central parts of Hungarian Kingdom Edit

The Kingdom of Hungary, which at the time spanned the area from Croatia in the west to Transylvania in the east, was also gravely threatened by Ottoman advances. The origins of such a deterioration can be traced back to the fall of the Árpád ruling dynasty and their subsequent replacement with the Angevin and Jagiellonian kings. After a series of inconclusive wars over the course of 176 years, the kingdom finally crumbled in the Battle of Mohács of 1526, after which most of it was either conquered or brought under Ottoman suzerainty. (The 150-year Turkish rule, as it is called in Hungary, lasted until the late 17th century but parts of the Hungarian Kingdom were under Ottoman rule from 1421 and until 1718.)

Conquest of Serbia Edit

As a result of heavy losses inflicted by the Ottomans in the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, the Serbian Empire had dissolved into several principalities. In the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, Serbian forces were again annihilated. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, constant struggles took place between various Serbian kingdoms and the Ottoman Empire. The turning point was the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. In 1459, following the siege, the temporary Serbian capital of Smederevo fell. Zeta was overrun by 1499. Belgrade was the last major Balkan city to endure Ottoman forces. Serbs, Hungarians, and European crusaders defeated the Turkish army in the siege of Belgrade in 1456. After repelling Ottoman attacks for over 70 years, Belgrade finally fell in 1521, along with the greater part of the Kingdom of Hungary. The rebellion of Serbian military commander Jovan Nenad between 1526 and 1528 led to the proclamation of the Second Serbian Empire in modern-day Serbian province of Vojvodina, which was among the last Serbian territories to resist the Ottomans. The Serbian Despotate fell in 1459, thus marking the two-century-long Ottoman conquest of Serbian principalities.

1463–1503: Wars with Venice Edit

The wars with the Republic of Venice began in 1463. A favorable peace treaty was signed in 1479 after the lengthy siege of Shkodra (1478–79). In 1480, now no longer hampered by the Venetian fleet, the Ottomans besieged Rhodes and captured Otranto. [10] War with Venice resumed from 1499 to 1503. In 1500, a Spanish–Venetian army commanded by Gonzalo de Córdoba took Kefalonia, temporarily stopping the Ottoman offensive on eastern Venetian territories. The offensive resumed after the Ottoman victory of Preveza (1538), fought between an Ottoman fleet commanded by Hayreddin Barbarossa and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III.

1462–1483: Wallachian and Moldavian campaigns Edit

In 1462, Mehmed II was driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula in the Night Attack at Târgovişte. However, the latter was imprisoned by Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus. This caused outrage among many influential Hungarian figures and Western admirers of Vlad's success in the battle against the Ottoman Empire (and his early recognition of the threat it posed), including high-ranking members of the Vatican. Because of this, Matthias granted him the status of distinguished prisoner. Eventually, Dracula was freed in late 1475 and was sent with an army of Hungarian and Serbian soldiers to recover Bosnia from the Ottomans. There he defeated Ottoman forces for the first time. Upon this victory, Ottoman forces entered Wallachia in 1476 under the command of Mehmed II. [ clarification needed ] Vlad was killed and, according to some sources, his head was sent to Constantinople to discourage the other rebellions. (Bosnia was completely added to Ottoman lands in 1482.)

The Turkish advance was temporarily halted after Stephen the Great of Moldavia defeated the armies of the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, one of the greatest defeats of the Ottoman Empire until that time. Stephen was defeated the next year at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă), but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Neamț Citadel) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen's search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had "cut off the pagan's right-hand", as he put it in a letter.

1526–1566: Conquest of the Kingdom of Hungary Edit

After the Ottoman victory in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, only the southwestern part of the Kingdom of Hungary was actually conquered. [11] The Ottoman campaign continued between 1526 and 1556 with small campaigns and major summer invasions – troops would return south of the Balkan Mountains before winter. In 1529, they mounted their first major attack on the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy, attempting to conquer the city of Vienna (siege of Vienna). In 1532, another attack on Vienna with 60,000 troops in the main army was held up by the small fort (800 defenders) of Kőszeg in western Hungary, fighting a suicidal battle. [12] The invading troops were held up until winter was close and the Habsburg Empire had assembled a force of 80,000 at Vienna. The Ottoman troops returned home through Styria, laying waste to the country.

In the meantime, in 1538, the Ottoman Empire invaded Moldavia. In 1541, another campaign in Hungary took Buda and Pest (which today together form the Hungarian capital Budapest) with a largely bloodless trick: after concluding peace talks with an agreement, troops stormed the open gates of Buda in the night. In retaliation for a failed Austrian counter-attack in 1542, the conquest of the western half of central Hungary was finished in the 1543 campaign that took both the most important royal ex-capital, Székesfehérvár, and the ex-seat of the cardinal, Esztergom. However, the army of 35–40,000 men was not enough for Suleiman to mount another attack on Vienna. A temporary truce was signed between the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires in 1547, which was soon disregarded by the Habsburgs.

In the major but moderately successful campaign of 1552, two armies took the eastern part of central Hungary, pushing the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the second (inner) line of northern végvárs (border castles), which Hungary originally built as defence against an expected second Mongol invasion—hence, afterwards, borders on this front changed little. For Hungarians, the 1552 campaign was a series of tragic losses and some heroic (but pyrrhic) victories, which entered folklore—most notably the fall of Drégely (a small fort defended to the last man by just 146 men, [13] and the siege of Eger. The latter was a major végvár with more than 2,000 men, without outside help. They faced two Ottoman armies, which were surprisingly unable to take the castle within five weeks. (The fort was later taken in 1596.) Finally, the 1556 campaign secured Ottoman influence over Transylvania (which had fallen under Habsburg control for a time), while failing to gain any ground on the western front, being tied down in the second (after 1555) unsuccessful siege of the southwestern Hungarian border castle of Szigetvár.

The Ottoman Empire conducted another major war against the Habsburgs and their Hungarian territories between 1566 and 1568. The 1566 siege of Szigetvár, the third siege in which the fort was finally taken, but the aged Sultan died, deterring that year's push for Vienna.

1522–1573: Rhodes, Malta and the Holy League Edit

Ottoman forces invaded and captured the island of Rhodes in 1522, after two previous failed attempts (see Siege of Rhodes (1522)). [14] The Knights of Saint John were banished to Malta, which was in turn besieged in 1565.

After a siege of three months, the Ottoman army failed to control all of the Maltese forts. Delaying the Ottomans until bad weather conditions and the arrival of Sicilian reinforcements, made Ottoman commander Kızılahmedli Mustafa Pasha quit the siege. Around 22,000 to 48,000 Ottoman troops against 6,000 to 8,500 Maltese troops, the Ottomans failed to conquer Malta, sustaining more than 25,000 losses, [15] including one of the greatest Muslim corsair generals of the time, Dragut, and were repulsed. Had Malta fallen, Sicily and mainland Italy could have fallen under the threat of an Ottoman invasion. The victory of Malta during this event, which is nowadays known as the Great Siege of Malta, turned the tide and gave Europe hopes and motivation. It also marked the importance of the Knights of Saint John and their relevant presence in Malta to aid Christendom in its defence against the Muslim conquest.

The Ottoman naval victories of this period were in the Battle of Preveza (1538) and the Battle of Djerba (1560).

The Mediterranean campaign, which lasted from 1570 to 1573, resulted in the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus. A Holy League of Venice, the Papal States, Spain, the Knights of Saint John in Malta and initially Portugal was formed against the Ottoman Empire during this period. The League's victory in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) briefly ended Ottoman predominance at sea.

1570–1571: Conquest of Cyprus Edit

In the summer of 1570, the Turks struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry and artillery, under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha landed unopposed near Limassol on July 2, 1570, and laid siege to Nicosia. In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell—September 9, every public building and palace was looted. Word of the superior Ottoman numbers spread, and a few days later Mustafa took Kyrenia without having to fire a shot. Famagusta, however, resisted and put up a defense that lasted from September 1570 until August 1571.

The fall of Famagusta marked the beginning of the Ottoman period in Cyprus. Two months later, the naval forces of the Holy League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles of world history. The victory over the Turks, however, came too late to help Cyprus, and the island remained under Ottoman rule for the next three centuries.

In 1570, the Ottoman Empire first conquered Cyprus, and Lala Mustafa Pasha became the first Ottoman governor of Cyprus, challenging the claims of Venice. Simultaneously, the Pope formed a coalition between the Papal States, Malta, Spain, Venice and several other Italian states, with no real result. In 1573 the Venetians left, removing the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.

1593–1669: Austria, Venice and Wallachia Edit

    (15-year war with Austria, 1593–1606) ends with status quo. campaign against the Ottoman Empire (1593–1601)
  • War with Venice 1645–1669 and the conquest of Crete (see Cretan War (1645–1669)). : failed Ottoman attempt to defeat and invade Austria.

1620–1621: Poland-Lithuania Edit

Wars fought over Moldavia. The Polish army advanced into Moldavia and was defeated in the Battle of Ţuţora. The Next year, the Poles repelled the Turkish invasion in the Battle of Khotyn. Another conflict started in 1633 but was soon settled.

1657–1683 Conclusion of wars with Habsburgs Edit

Transylvania, the Eastern part of the former Hungarian Kingdom, gained semi-independence in 1526, while paying tribute to the Ottoman Empire. In 1657, Transylvania felt strong enough to attack the Tatars to the East (then the Empire's vassals), and later the Ottoman Empire itself, which had come to the Tatars' defence. The war lasted until 1662, ending in defeat for the Hungarians. The Western part of the Hungarian Kingdom (Partium) was annexed and placed under direct Ottoman control. At the same time, there was another campaign against Austria between 1663 and 1664. Despite being defeated in the Battle of Saint Gotthard on 1 August 1664 by Raimondo Montecuccoli, the Ottomans secured recognition of their conquest of Nové Zámky in the Peace of Vasvár with Austria, marking the greatest territorial extent of Ottoman rule in the former Hungarian Kingdom. [16]

1672–1676: Poland-Lithuania Edit

The Polish–Ottoman War (1672–1676) ended with the Treaty of Żurawno, in which the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth ceded control of most of its Ukrainian territories to the empire.

1683–1699: Great Turkish War – Loss of Hungary and the Morea Edit

The Great Turkish War started in 1683, with a grand invasion force of 140,000 men [17] marching on Vienna, supported by Protestant Hungarian noblemen rebelling against Habsburg rule. To stop the invasion, another Holy League was formed, composed of Austria and Poland (notably in the Battle of Vienna), Venetians and the Russian Empire, Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. The battle marked the first time the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire had cooperated militarily against the Ottomans, and it is often seen as a turning point in history, after which "the Ottoman Turks ceased to be a menace to the Christian world". [18] [c] In the ensuing war that lasted until 1699, the Ottomans lost almost all of Hungary to the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. [18]

After winning the Battle of Vienna, the Holy League gained the upper hand and reconquered Hungary (Buda and Pest were retaken in 1686, the former under the command of a Swiss-born convert to Islam). At the same time, the Venetians launched an expedition into Greece, which conquered the Peloponnese. During the 1687 Venetian attack on the city of Athens (conquered by the Ottomans), the Ottomans turned the ancient Parthenon into an ammunitions storehouse. A Venetian mortar hit the Parthenon, detonating the Ottoman gunpowder stored inside, partially destroying it. [19] [20]

The war ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Prince Eugene of Savoy first distinguished himself in 1683 and remained the most important Austrian commander until 1718. [21] [22]

18th century Edit

The second Russo-Turkish War took place 1710–1711 near Prut. It was instigated by Charles XII of Sweden after the defeat at the Battle of Poltava, in order to tie down Russia with the Ottoman Empire and gain some breathing space in the increasingly unsuccessful Great Northern War. The Russians were severely beaten but not annihilated, and after the Treaty of Prut was signed the Ottoman Empire disengaged, allowing Russia to refocus its energies on the defeat of Sweden.

The Ottoman–Venetian War started in 1714. It overlapped with the Austro-Turkish War (1716–1718), in which Austria conquered the remaining areas of the former Hungarian Kingdom, ending with the Treaty of Passarowitz in 1718.

Another war with Russia started in 1735. The Austrians joined in 1737 the war ended in 1739 with the Treaty of Belgrade (with Austria) and the Treaty of Niš (with Russia).

The fourth Russo-Turkish War started in 1768 and ended in 1774 with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca.

Another war with Russia started in 1787 and a concurrent war with Austria followed in 1788 the Austrian war ended with the 1791 Treaty of Sistova, and the Russian war ended with the 1792 Treaty of Jassy.

An invasion of Egypt and Syria by Napoleon I of France took place in 1798–99, but ended due to British intervention.

Napoleon's capture of Malta on his way to Egypt resulted in the unusual alliance of Russia and the Ottomans resulting in a joint naval expedition to the Ionian Islands. Their successful capture of these islands led to the setting up of the Septinsular Republic.

19th century Edit

The First Serbian Uprising took place in 1804, followed by the Second Serbian Uprising in 1815 Serbia was fully liberated by 1867. Officially recognized independence followed in 1878.

The sixth Russo-Turkish War began in 1806 and ended in May 1812, just 13 days before Napoleon's invasion of Russia.

The Greek War of Independence, taking place from 1821 to 1832, in which the Great Powers intervened from 1827, including Russia (seventh Russo-Turkish war, 1828–1829), achieved independence for Greece the Treaty of Adrianople ended the war.

The decline of the Ottoman Empire included the following conflicts.

Bosnian rebellions 1831–1836, 1836–1837, 1841.

Albanian rebellions 1820–1822, 1830–1835, 1847.

War with Montenegro 1852–1853.

Eight Russo-Turkish war 1853–1856, Crimean War, in which the United Kingdom and France joined the war on the side of the Ottoman Empire. Ended with the Treaty of Paris.

Second war with Montenegro in 1858–1859.

War with Montenegro, Bosnia and Serbia in 1862.

The ninth and final Russo-Turkish War started in 1877, the same year the Ottomans withdrew from the Constantinople Conference. Romania then declared its independence and waged war on Turkey, joined by Serbians and Bulgarians and finally the Russians (see also History of Russia (1855–92)). Austria occupied Bosnia in 1878. The Russians and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano in early 1878. After deliberations at the Congress of Berlin, which was attended by all the Great Powers of the time, the Treaty of Berlin (1878) recognized several territorial changes.

Eastern Rumelia was granted some autonomy in 1878, but then rebelled and joined Bulgaria in 1885. Thessaly was ceded to Greece in 1881, but after Greece attacked the Ottoman Empire to help the Second Cretan Uprising in 1897, Greece was defeated in Thessaly.


Growth and Stagnation (1453–1683) [ edit | edit source ]

The defeat in 1456 at the Siege of Nándorfehérvár (Belgrade) held up Ottoman expansion into Catholic Europe for 70 years, though for one year (1480–1481) the Italian port of Otranto was taken, and in 1493 the Ottoman army successfully raided Croatia and Styria. Ώ]

Wars in Albania [ edit | edit source ]

Contemporaneous campaigns

The Ottomans took much of Albania in the 1385 Battle of Savra. The 1444 League of Lezhë briefly restored one part of Albania, until Ottomans captured complete territory of Albania after capture of Shkodër in 1479 and Durrës in 1501.

The Ottomans faced the fiercest resistance from Albanians who gathered around their leader, George Castriot, son of a feudal nobleman, and managed to fend off Ottoman attacks for more than 25 years, culminating at the siege of Shkodra in 1478-79. It has been argued that Albanian resilience halted the Ottoman advance along the Eastern flank of the Western Civilization, saving the Italian peninsula from Ottoman conquest. Sultan Mehmet II died in 1481, merely two years after the collapse of the Albanian resistance and one year after he launched an Italian campaign.

Conquest of Bosnia [ edit | edit source ]

Ottoman Empire first reached Bosnia in 1388 where they were defeated by Bosnian forces in the Battle of Bileca and then were forced to retreat. ΐ] After the fall of Serbia in 1389 Battle of Kosovo, where the Bosnians participated through Vlatko Vuković, the Turks began various offensives against the Kingdom of Bosnia. The Bosnians defended themselves but without much success. Bosnians resisted strongly in the Bosnian Royal castle of Jajce, where the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomašević tried to repel the Turks. The Ottoman army conquered it after a few months of the siege of Jajce, in 1463, and executed the last King of Bosnia, ending the Medieval Bosnia.

The House of Kosača held Herzegovina until 1482.

Croatia [ edit | edit source ]

Croatian captain Petar Kružić led the defense of the Klis Fortress against a Turkish invasion and siege that lasted for more than two and a half decades. During this defense, an elite Croatian military faction of Uskoci was formed.

After the fall of the Kingdom of Bosnia into Ottoman hands in 1463, the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Croatia remained unprotected, the defense of which was left to Croatian gentry who kept smaller troops in the fortified border areas at their own expense. The Ottomans meanwhile reached the river Neretva and having conquered Herzegovina (Rama) in 1482, they encroached upon Croatia, skillfully avoiding the fortified border towns. A decisive Ottoman victory at the Battle of Krbava field shook all of Croatia. However it did not dissuade the Croats from making persistent attempts at defending themselves against the attacks of the more superior Ottoman forces. After almost two hundred years of Croatian resistance against the Ottoman Empire, the victory in the Battle of Sisak marked the end of Ottoman rule and the Hundred Years' Croatian-Ottoman War. The Viceroy's army, chasing the fleeing remnants at Petrinja in 1595, sealed the victory.

Conquest of central parts of Hungarian Kingdom [ edit | edit source ]


The Kingdom of Hungary, which at the time spanned the area from Croatia in the west to Transylvania in the east, was also gravely threatened by Ottoman advances. The origins of such a deterioration can be traced back to the fall of the Árpád ruling dynasty and their subsequent replacement with the Angevin and Jagiellonian kings. After a series of inconclusive wars over the course of 176 years, the kingdom finally crumbled in the Battle of Mohács of 1526, after which most of it was either conquered or brought under Ottoman suzerainty. (The 150-year Turkish Occupation, as it is called in Hungary, lasted until the late 17th century but parts of the Hungarian Kingdom were under Ottoman rule from 1421 and until 1718.)

Conquest of Serbia/ Vojvodina rebellion [ edit | edit source ]

As a result of heavy losses inflicted by the Ottomans in the Battle of Maritsa in 1371, the Serbian Empire had dissolved into several principalities. In the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, Serbian forces were again annihilated. Throughout the 15th and 16th centuries, constant struggles took place between various Serbian kingdoms on the one hand, and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The turning point was the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. In 1459 following the siege, the "temporary" Serbian capital of Smederevo fell. Montenegro was overrun by 1499. Belgrade was the last major Balkan city to endure Ottoman forces. Serbs, Hungarians and European crusaders defeated the Turkish army in the Siege of Belgrade in 1456. After repelling Ottoman attacks for over 70 years, Belgrade finally fell in 1521, along with the greater part of the Kingdom of Hungary. Vojvodina rebellion between 1526/28 saw the proclamation of Second Serbian Empire in Vojvodina, which was among last Serbian territories to resist the Ottomans. The Serbian Despotate fell in 1540, thus marking the two-century-long Ottoman conquest of Serbian principalities.

Ottoman advances resulted in some of the captive Christians being carried deep into Turkish territory.

1463–1503: Wars with Venice [ edit | edit source ]

The wars with the Republic of Venice began in 1463, until a favorable peace treaty was signed in 1479 after the lengthy siege of Shkodra (1478–79). In 1480, now no longer hampered by the Venetian fleet, the Ottomans besieged Rhodes and captured Otranto. Α] War with Venice resumed from 1499 to 1503. In 1500, a Spanish-Venetian army commanded by Gonzalo de Córdoba took Kefalonia, temporarily stopping the Ottoman offensive on eastern Venetian territories. Which is resumed after the Ottoman victory of Preveza, fought between an Ottoman fleet and that of a Christian alliance assembled by Pope Paul III in 1538.

1462–1483: Wallachian and Moldavian campaigns [ edit | edit source ]

In 1462, Mehmed II was driven back by Wallachian prince Vlad III Dracula at The Night Attack. However, the latter was imprisoned by Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus. This caused outrage among many influential Hungarian figures and Western admirers of Vlad's success in the battle against the Ottoman Empire (and his early recognition of the threat it posed), including high-ranking members of the Vatican. Because of this, Matthias granted him the status of distinguished prisoner. Eventually, Dracula was freed in late 1475 and was sent with an army of Hungarian and Serbian soldiers to recover Bosnia from the Ottomans. He defeated Ottoman Forces and he gained his first victory against the Ottoman Empire. Upon this victory, Ottoman Forces entered Wallachia in 1476 under the command of Mehmed II. [ Clarification needed ]

Ottoman soldiers in the territory of present-day Hungary

The Turkish advance was temporarily halted after Stephen the Great of Moldavia defeated the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II's armies at the Battle of Vaslui in 1475, which was one of the greatest defeats of the Ottoman empire until that time. Stephen was defeated at Războieni (Battle of Valea Albă) the next year, but the Ottomans had to retreat after they failed to take any significant castle (see siege of Cetatea Neamţului) as a plague started to spread in the Ottoman army. Stephen's search for European assistance against the Turks met with little success, even though he had "cut off the pagan's right hand" - as he put it in a letter.

In 1482, Bosnia was completely added to Ottoman Lands.

1526–1566: Attack on Hungarian Kingdom [ edit | edit source ]

After the Mohács, only the southwestern part of the Hungarian Kingdom was actually conquered, Β] but the Ottoman campaign continued with small campaigns and major summer invasions (troops returned south of the Balkan Mountains before winter) through the land between 1526 and 1556. In 1529, they mounted their first major attack on the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (with up to 300,000 troops in earlier accounts, 100,000 according to newer research), attempting to conquer the city of Vienna (Siege of Vienna). In 1532, another attack on Vienna with 60,000 troops in the main army was held up by the small fort (800 defenders) of Kőszeg in western Hungary, fighting a suicidal battle. Γ] The invading troops were held up until winter was close and the Habsburg Empire had assembled a force of 80,000 at Vienna. The Ottoman troops returned home through Styria, laying waste to the country.

In the meantime, in 1538, the Ottoman Empire invaded Moldavia. In 1541, another campaign in Hungary took Buda and Pest (which today together form the Hungarian capital Budapest) with a largely bloodless trick: after concluding peace talks with an agreement, troops stormed the open gates of Buda in the night. In retaliation for a failed Austrian counter-attack in 1542, the conquest of the western half of central Hungary was finished in the 1543 campaign that took both the most important royal ex-capital, Székesfehérvár, and the ex-seat of the cardinal, Esztergom. However, the army of 35–40,000 men was not enough for Suleiman to mount another attack on Vienna. A temporary truce was signed between the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires in 1547, which was soon disregarded by the Habsburgs.

The Ottoman campaign in Hungary in 1566, Crimean Tatars as vanguard

In the major but moderately successful campaign of 1552, two armies took the eastern part of central Hungary, pushing the borders of the Ottoman Empire to the second (inner) line of northern végvárs (border castles), which Hungary originally built as defence against an expected second Mongol invasion—hence, afterwards, borders on this front changed little. For Hungarians, the 1552 campaign was a series of tragic losses and some heroic (but pyrrhic) victories, which entered folklore—most notably the fall of Drégely (a small fort defended to the last man by just 146 men Δ] ), and the Siege of Eger. The latter was a major végvár with more than 2,000 men, without outside help. They faced two Ottoman armies (150,000 troops by earlier accounts, 60-75,000 men according to newer research), which were surprisingly unable to take the castle within five weeks. (The fort was later taken in 1596.) Finally, the 1556 campaign secured Ottoman influence over Transylvania (which had fallen under Habsburg control for a time), while failing to gain any ground on the western front, being tied down in the second (after 1555) unsuccessful siege of the southwestern Hungarian border castle of Szigetvár.

The Ottoman Empire conducted another major war against the Habsburgs and their Hungarian territories between 1566 and 1568. The 1566 Battle of Szigetvar, the third siege in which the fort was finally taken, but the aged Sultan died, deterring that year's push for Vienna.

1522–1573: Rhodes, Malta and the Holy League [ edit | edit source ]

Ottoman forces invaded and captured the island of Rhodes in 1522, after two previous failed attempts (see Siege of Rhodes). Ε] The Knights of Rhodes were banished to Malta, which was in turn besieged in 1565.

After a siege of three months, the Ottoman army failed to control all of the Maltese forts. Delaying the Ottomans until bad weather conditions and the arrival of Sicilian reinforcements, made Ottoman commander Kızılahmedli Mustafa Pasha quit the siege. Around 22000 to 48000 Ottoman forces against 6000 to 8500 Maltese forces, the Ottomans failed to conquer Malta, sustaining about 10000 losses, including one of the greatest Muslim corsair generals of the time, Dragut, and were repulsed. Had Malta fallen, Sicily and mainland Italy could have fallen under the threat of an Ottoman invasion. The victory of Malta during this event, which is nowadays known as the Great Siege of Malta, turned the tide and gave Europe hopes and motivation. It also marked the importance of the Knights of Saint John and their relevant presence in Malta to aid Christendom in its defence against the Muslim conquest.

The Ottoman naval victories of this period were in the Battle of Preveza (1538) and the Battle of Djerba (1560).

Battle of Lepanto on 7 October 1571

The Mediterranean campaign, which lasted from 1570 to 1573, resulted in the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus. A Holy League of Venice, the Papal States, Spain, the Knights of Saint John in Malta and initially Portugal was formed against the Ottoman Empire during this period. The League's victory in the Battle of Lepanto (1571) briefly ended Ottoman predominance at sea.

1570–1571: Conquest of Cyprus [ edit | edit source ]

In the summer of 1570, the Turks struck again, but this time with a full-scale invasion rather than a raid. About 60,000 troops, including cavalry and artillery, under the command of Lala Mustafa Pasha landed unopposed near Limassol on July 2, 1570, and laid siege to Nicosia. In an orgy of victory on the day that the city fell—September 9, every public building and palace was looted. Word of the superior Ottoman numbers spread, and a few days later Mustafa took Kyrenia without having to fire a shot. Famagusta, however, resisted and put up a defense that lasted from September 1570 until August 1571.

The fall of Famagusta marked the beginning of the Ottoman period in Cyprus. Two months later, the naval forces of the Holy League, composed mainly of Venetian, Spanish, and Papal ships under the command of Don John of Austria, defeated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto in one of the decisive battles of world history. The victory over the Turks, however, came too late to help Cyprus, and the island remained under Ottoman rule for the next three centuries.

In 1570, the Ottoman Empire first conquered Cyprus, and Lala Mustafa Pasha became the first Ottoman governor of Cyprus, challenging the claims of Venice. Simultaneously, the Pope formed a coalition between the Papal States, Malta, Spain, Venice and several other Italian states, with no real result. In 1573 the Venetians left, removing the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.

1593–1669: Austria, Venice and Wallachia [ edit | edit source ]

Turkish Empire, drawn by Hondius, just at the end of the Long War, 1606

    (15-Year War with Austria, 1593–1606) ends with status quo.
  • War with Venice 1645–1669 and the conquest of Crete (see Cretan War (1645–1669)). campaign against the Ottoman Empire (1593–1601)

1620-1621: Poland [ edit | edit source ]

Was fought over Moldavia. The Polish army advanced into Moldavia and was defeated in the Battle of Ţuţora. The Next year, the Poles repelled the Turkish invasion in the Battle of Khotyn. Another conflict started in 1633 but was soon settled.

1657–1683 Conclusion of Wars with Habsburgs [ edit | edit source ]

In 1657, Transylvania, the Eastern part of the former Hungarian Kingdom that after 1526 gained semi-independence while paying tribute to the Ottoman Empire, felt strong enough to attack the Tatars (then the Empire's vassals) to the East, and later the Ottoman Empire itself, that came to the Tatars' defence. The war lasted until 1662, ending in defeat for the Hungarians. The Western part of the Hungarian Kingdom (Partium) was annexed and placed under direct Ottoman control, marking the greatest territorial extent of Ottoman rule in the former Hungarian Kingdom. At the same time, there was another campaign against Austria between 1663 and 1664. However, the Turks were defeated in the Battle of Saint Gotthard on 1 August 1664 by Raimondo Montecuccoli, forcing them to enter the Peace of Vasvár with Austria, which held until 1683. Ζ]

Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683

1672–1676: Poland [ edit | edit source ]

A year after Poland beat back a Tatar invasion, war with Poland 1672–1676, Jan Sobieski distinguishes himself and becomes the King of Poland.

1683–1699: Great Turkish War – Loss of Hungary and the Morea [ edit | edit source ]

The Great Turkish War started in 1683, with a grand invasion force of 140,000 men Η] marching on Vienna, supported by Protestant Hungarian noblemen rebelling against Habsburg rule. To stop the invasion, another Holy League was formed, composed of Austria and Poland (notably in the Battle of Vienna), Venetians and the Russian Empire. After winning the Battle of Vienna, the Holy League gained the upper hand, and conducted the re-conquest of Hungary (Buda and Pest were retaken in 1686, the former under the command of a Swiss-born convert to Islam). At the same time, the Venetians launched an expedition into Greece, which conquered the Peloponnese. During the 1687 Venetian attack on the city of Athens (conquered by the Ottomans), the Ottomans turned the ancient Parthenon into an ammunitions storehouse. A Venetian mortar hit the Parthenon, detonating the Ottoman gunpowder stored inside and partially destroying it. ⎖]

The war ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Prince Eugene of Savoy first distinguished himself in 1683 and remained the most important Austrian commander until 1718. ⎗] ⎘]


First Religion War

There were of series of eight religious wars that ran for a total of thirty-six years in France (FPEB, 2008). These gruesome wars have split france into multiple of regions. As in the reformation, the wars were between the Catholics and the Protestants. One is fighting for religious control, which are the Catholics. While the other, Protestants are fighting for their religion acceptance. In my opinion, the first war that broke out, which started all eight wars in France is very important to cover. The reason why the first war is very important is because it showed and demonstrated how Catholics truly thought about Protestants and how they should be treated.

The first war began in 1562, with the Duke Francois de Guise massacring hundreds of Protestants on the first of March (FPEB). Duke Francois massacred innocent civilians while they were attending worship (FPEB). When the massacred happened, news spread rapidly in France. When word got to Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Conde, he was enranged with fury. He, himself a Protestant, gathered an army of Protestants and fought in Orleans (FPEB). Within one month, Louis de Bourdon and his Protestants gatherers captured Orleans with a victory on the second of April (Kingdom). However, when word got around that Louis de Bourbon and his troops of Protestants won and captured Orleans, war began to break loose all over the nation (Kingdom). Both Catholics and Protestants were starting to torture one another. Both Catholics and Protestants committed acts of savage and violence (Kingdom). The break out also also led for three superiors battle against one another Baron des Adrets in the Dauphine and in Provence, who are Protestants fighting against Blaise de Montluc in Guyenne who is Catholic (Kingdom).

As the war continued, during the battle of Dreux, “that opposed the troops of Conde and those of the High Constable of Montmorency, the royal troops had the advantage” (Major). In the battle of Orleans was a very important battle that determines who is going to win the war. As the war in Orleans continues to show signs of breakage, Duke de Guise sieged the land. (Major). The Protestants lost the capture of Orleans. Furious with their their loss, Poltron de Mere, one of the Amboise conspirators assassinated the Duke (Major). In the nineteenth of March “the Amboise Edict of pacification was negotiated by Conde and the High Constable of Montmorency” which ended the one year war and the first religious war.

Fondation Pasteur Eugene Bersier. The Eight Wars of Religion (1562-1598). Musee Virtuel Du Protestantisme Francais. 2008.Web. Febuary 2, 2014. <http://www.museeprotestant.org/Pages/Notices.php?scatid=3&noticeid=886&lev=1&Lget=EN>.

Kingdom, Robert M. Geneva and the Coming of the Wars of Religion in France, 1555-1563 . Renaissance News, Vol. 10, No. 3 (Autumn, 1957) The Univeristy of Chicago Press. pp. 152-154.

Major, Russell. J. Nobel Income, Inflation, and the Wars of Religion in France. The American Historical Review, Vol. 86, No. 1 (Feb., 1981). Oxford University Press. pp. 21-48.


Challenge/What If: Thirty Years’ War, Great Polish Deluge, and Great Turkish War All Happened At Once

Well, in the scenario I proposed the invasion is made mostly by the Crimeans allied with the rebellious Cossacks. You can add some Ottoman help but for the significant difference elsewhere the main Ottoman force has to go to Austria, preferably not concentrating on taking Vienna.

As for Russia and Sweden, I’m not sure that GA would be able to implement an earlier Deluge schema because Swedish advantage at the field was not yet big enough. Tsardom’s chances of accomplishing successful fighting on the later scale were not good: while the Poles were stronger than in 1650s, Tsardom’s military system was much weaker in pretty much each and every aspect. In 1654 Smolensk capitulated within two months and it was just one of the going on operations. In 1632-34 capture of Smolensk was the main goal of a war, it lasted more than a year and ultimately ended with a catastrophe (in 1632-34 Russia could field under 24,000 while the PLC deployed 30-35,000 in 1654 Russia invaded with 70,000 not counting allied Cossacks).

So, short of some substantial differences from OTL, the Deluge is unlikely.

Alexmilman

TickTock The Witch's Dead

Well, in the scenario I proposed the invasion is made mostly by the Crimeans allied with the rebellious Cossacks. You can add some Ottoman help but for the significant difference elsewhere the main Ottoman force has to go to Austria, preferably not concentrating on taking Vienna.

As for Russia and Sweden, I’m not sure that GA would be able to implement an earlier Deluge schema because Swedish advantage at the field was not yet big enough. Tsardom’s chances of accomplishing successful fighting on the later scale were not good: while the Poles were stronger than in 1650s, Tsardom’s military system was much weaker in pretty much each and every aspect. In 1654 Smolensk capitulated within two months and it was just one of the going on operations. In 1632-34 capture of Smolensk was the main goal of a war, it lasted more than a year and ultimately ended with a catastrophe (in 1632-34 Russia could field under 24,000 while the PLC deployed 30-35,000 in 1654 Russia invaded with 70,000 not counting allied Cossacks).

So, short of some substantial differences from OTL, the Deluge is unlikely.

Gloss

I am not so sure about that. In the Netherlands there was a saying in these days: Rather Turkish than Popish. They prefered to be ruled by the Turks than by Catholics. Personaly I think the protestants would let the Austrians and others fight, while they strngthen their position and kick the Catholics out.

This is of course assuming the Catholics would see the Ottomans as the major threat. There is a chance they see protestants as the bigger one.

Alexmilman

Thirty Years' War - Wikipedia

Pompejus

Yes and no. I don't think they would have liked being ruled by the Ottomans, but I don't think they cared if the Ottomans conquered Vienna, nor they would not have cared if they would be ruled by either the Ottomans or (in the case of the Netherlands) the Spanish. Actualy I would go so far as to say they would have prefered the Ottomans over the Spanish, since the Ottomans generaly allowed protestants to be protestants, while the Spanish did not.

Basicly I believe the protestants would not prefer catholicism over islam. Or prefer a catholic overlord over an Ottoman overlord. Although in both cases freedom over both catholicism and islam would be preferable.

TickTock The Witch's Dead

Thirty Years' War - Wikipedia

JanWellem

Yes and no. I don't think they would have liked being ruled by the Ottomans, but I don't think they cared if the Ottomans conquered Vienna, nor they would not have cared if they would be ruled by either the Ottomans or (in the case of the Netherlands) the Spanish. Actualy I would go so far as to say they would have prefered the Ottomans over the Spanish, since the Ottomans generaly allowed protestants to be protestants, while the Spanish did not.

Basicly I believe the protestants would not prefer catholicism over islam. Or prefer a catholic overlord over an Ottoman overlord. Although in both cases freedom over both catholicism and islam would be preferable.

Alexmilman

The Ottomans could be successful at Chocim: if you want to be close to Deluge scenario, Sagaidachni (who decides “to play Khmelnitsky”) with the Cossacks turns against the Poles and their position becomes a death trap. The Ottomans are capturing Podolia and the PLC is losing Left Bank Ukraine to the Cossacks. Tsardom uses an opportunity to grab some territory as well and GA occupies Courland and Warmia. Would this satisfy you?

TickTock The Witch's Dead

The Ottomans could be successful at Chocim: if you want to be close to Deluge scenario, Sagaidachni (who decides “to play Khmelnitsky”) with the Cossacks turns against the Poles and their position becomes a death trap. The Ottomans are capturing Podolia and the PLC is losing Left Bank Ukraine to the Cossacks. Tsardom uses an opportunity to grab some territory as well and GA occupies Courland and Warmia. Would this satisfy you?

And then the Hasbburgs intervene for the PLC because the Ottomans expanding is bad news bears for them. And then the Protestants rebel during this time. And everything goes to hell.

Alexmilman

And then the Hasbburgs intervene for the PLC because the Ottomans expanding is bad news bears for them. And then the Protestants rebel during this time. And everything goes to hell.

The Hapsburgs did intervene against the Swedes but the Poles refused to pay von Arnim and his troops so .

TickTock The Witch's Dead

The Hapsburgs did intervene against the Swedes but the Poles refused to pay von Arnim and his troops so .

Alexmilman

The Hapsburgs may not mind but the troops sent to the PLC definitely would, as in OTL. Not that the Hapsburgs had too many extra troops available at the time of Chosim (1621).

BTW, I still can’t figure out whom do you want to screw up in your scenario and at which time.

The Austrian Hapsburgs had been saved on the initial stage of the 30YW because the Ottomans went against the PLC in 1620-21. On that stage the Austrian Hapsburgs did not have lacking the troops to spare but even the troops to defend themselves: to win at White Mountain they needed help from both Catholic League and Spain. Creation of the Hapsburg army was started by Wallenstein only in 1625. Hapsburg help to the PLC happened years later, in 1629.

Can you formulate your time table clearly?

TickTock The Witch's Dead

The Hapsburgs may not mind but the troops sent to the PLC definitely would, as in OTL. Not that the Hapsburgs had too many extra troops available at the time of Chosim (1621).

BTW, I still can’t figure out whom do you want to screw up in your scenario and at which time.

The Austrian Hapsburgs had been saved on the initial stage of the 30YW because the Ottomans went against the PLC in 1620-21. On that stage the Austrian Hapsburgs did not have lacking the troops to spare but even the troops to defend themselves: to win at White Mountain they needed help from both Catholic League and Spain. Creation of the Hapsburg army was started by Wallenstein only in 1625. Hapsburg help to the PLC happened years later, in 1629.

Can you formulate your time table clearly?

My POD would be that the Ottomans beat the Safavids earlier around the early 1600s. So with the Safavids knocked out for a while, the Ottomans are able to focus on the PLC. The Habsburgs launch their crusade in response and Russia and Sweden also invade for territory.

And basically the Habsburgs are active long enough for the Protestant rebellions to occur, and the Ottomans invade the Habsburg possessions, causing the conflict to drag on longer. In response Spain and other Catholic nations (batting France) fight the Ottomans and Protestants. And that’s my vision in how everything in Europe goes to hell.

Alexmilman

My POD would be that the Ottomans beat the Safavids earlier around the early 1600s. So with the Safavids knocked out for a while, the Ottomans are able to focus on the PLC. The Habsburgs launch their crusade in response and Russia and Sweden also invade for territory.

And basically the Habsburgs are active long enough for the Protestant rebellions to occur, and the Ottomans invade the Habsburg possessions, causing the conflict to drag on longer. In response Spain and other Catholic nations (batting France) fight the Ottomans and Protestants. And that’s my vision in how everything in Europe goes to hell.

Intention to create an even greater bloody mess than in OTL is, of course, laudable ( ) but there can be scheduling problems .

1. Russia can't start war prior to the 1630s and even this is on the optimistic side (unless the events are borrowed from the books series "Adventures of John, the Duke of Mecklenburg" ) and even then scope of its operations more or less limited to the retaking of Smolensk and adjacent region. It simply does not have enough time and money after the ToT. Earlier time table excludes them from your TL. Which means that if you insist on Russian participation :
1.1. Swedish-Polish Wars had been prolonged by few years (in OTL ended in 1629) delaying Swedish ability to enter the 30YW.
1.2. The Ottomans have to delay their invasion of the PLC by at least a decade (in OTL happened in 1620).

2. If #1 is abandoned and the Ottomans are invading the PLC on schedule (a greater success is realistic), then there is no Hapsburg crusade. The Austrian Hapsburgs do not have army and money and nobody in the HRE gives a damn about the Ottoman invasion of Poland. Things in Germany are happening on OTL schedule and the only meaningful thing you can do is to eliminate Wallenstein as a "strategic factor" leaving the Austrian Hapsburgs to deal with the HRE mess without their own army and depending mostly upon the Catholic League and what the Spanish Hapsburgs can spare them from their war with the Dutch. The Danes are most probably defeated anyway but the mess is greater.

Basically, you can reasonably easy screw either Austrian Hapsburgs or the PLC but screwing both simultaneously is problematic.

TickTock The Witch's Dead

Intention to create an even greater bloody mess than in OTL is, of course, laudable ( ) but there can be scheduling problems .

1. Russia can't start war prior to the 1630s and even this is on the optimistic side (unless the events are borrowed from the books series "Adventures of John, the Duke of Mecklenburg" ) and even then scope of its operations more or less limited to the retaking of Smolensk and adjacent region. It simply does not have enough time and money after the ToT. Earlier time table excludes them from your TL. Which means that if you insist on Russian participation :
1.1. Swedish-Polish Wars had been prolonged by few years (in OTL ended in 1629) delaying Swedish ability to enter the 30YW.
1.2. The Ottomans have to delay their invasion of the PLC by at least a decade (in OTL happened in 1620).

2. If #1 is abandoned and the Ottomans are invading the PLC on schedule (a greater success is realistic), then there is no Hapsburg crusade. The Austrian Hapsburgs do not have army and money and nobody in the HRE gives a damn about the Ottoman invasion of Poland. Things in Germany are happening on OTL schedule and the only meaningful thing you can do is to eliminate Wallenstein as a "strategic factor" leaving the Austrian Hapsburgs to deal with the HRE mess without their own army and depending mostly upon the Catholic League and what the Spanish Hapsburgs can spare them from their war with the Dutch. The Danes are most probably defeated anyway but the mess is greater.

Basically, you can reasonably easy screw either Austrian Hapsburgs or the PLC but screwing both simultaneously is problematic.


Contents

Abaza Mehmed Paşa, a former Abkhazian slave, was a major Ottoman official who was appointed Beylerbey of the Ottoman Greater Silistria Province in 1632 , which included parts of what is now Bulgaria , Romania and the Ukraine . After the death of the Polish King Sigismund III. Wasa , the Russian Tsar Michael I broke the armistice of Deulino and started a war against Poland-Lithuania, the Russo-Polish War 1632–1634 . At the request of the tsar, Abaza mobilized Turkish troops from Silistria, which he reinforced with further vassals of the Sublime Porte , the Moldovans , Wallachians and the horde of Nogai Tatars from the Jedisan and Budschak . At that time, Sultan Murad IV did not want to risk an open war of the Ottoman Empire against Poland-Lithuania , as he saw threats more in the Asian half of his empire. It is possible that some members of the Sublime Porte authorized the Beylerbey's action, but there is no evidence of this.


Polish-Ottoman War, 1620-1621 - History

Bohemia, as previously written, did not want Ferdinand as their next king. They wanted the Protestant, Calvinist Frederick V of Palatine. However, Matthias, the Emperor overlooked this, and made plans for Ferdinand’s accession to the throne both in Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire. Upon Matthias’ death in 1619, Ferdinand was to be coroneted King and Emperor. Bohemia, already in open revolt made plans to secure allies against the ensuing Catholic invasion. Ferdinand, also began to secure allies, as he was not yet in the position to fight. These two actions made what could or should have been a short war involving only a few regions, into a large war involving most of Europe, and even European Colonial Empires.

Bohemia sought admission into the Protestant Union coincidentally led by Frederick V, their choice to be King. Bohemian leaders sent messages promising the throne in exchange for assistance. However, problems soon surfaced, as other Bohemian leaders promised the same throne to the Duke of Savoy and the Prince of Transylvania. Catholic Austrians intercepted the lying letters, and publicized them extensively, thus destroying early Bohemian support. The remaining Bohemian allies were consolidated into an army under Count Jindrich Thurn.

Count Thurn moved quickly. He invaded into Catholic controlled lands, and laid siege to Vienna in 1619. Thurn was under the impression that chaos was the order in Vienna, so he did not use siege technology against Vienna. While Vienna was under siege, allies in the east took to the offensive. Bethlen Gabor, the Transylvanian Prince and the Ottoman Turk Emperor Osman II created an alliance, which was to bring a large force into Catholic Poland. The Polish-Ottoman region of the War exploded in 1620. The Ottoman Turks were victorious, effectively taking Polish support away from the Holy Roman Empire in 1620, yet it was too late. Bohemian armies were defeated at the Battle of White Mountain a few months after Ottoman successes. The Ottomans returned home not being a major factor during the latter phases of the war.

Count Thurn, still outside of Vienna, was now threatened. He lost communication and supply lines, as Catholic armies were victorious at Sablat. The siege was broken, and the Bohemians needed to regroup, which they did under Thurn and Count Mansfield. With reorganization, the Bohemians allied themselves with Upper and Lower Austria, who were also in revolt. This alliance effectively deposed Ferdinand as King of Bohemia in 1619. These occurrences brought the Spanish Habsburgs into the war beginning in 1621.

First, Spain sent Ambrosio Spinola to Vienna with an army. Spain also convinced the once Bohemian ally, Protestant Saxony to fight on the Catholic side. In return, Saxony was to be awarded Lusatia, one of the rebelling Bohemian regions. With forces in place, the Spanish led army invaded successfully throughout northern and western Bohemia. Spanish forces quelled the rebellion in Upper Austria, as Ferdinand’s army ended conflict in Lower Austria. Their rear now protected, both armies met and moved further into Bohemia. Frederick V’s army was pinned down at the aforementioned, decisive Battle of White Mountain. Bohemian forces were defeated, with many, such as Thurn and Mansfield, fleeing to fight another day. Frederick was outlawed in the Holy Roman Empire, and all of his land holdings were distributed to Catholic nobility. Indefatigable, Frederick survived outside of the Holy Roman Empire, raising support in Scandinavia and the Low Countries for the Protestant cause.

Remaining Protestant support fled toward The Netherlands. Count Mansfield and Duke Christian of Brunswick could not remain together as an effective military force. Mansfield was paid off by the Dutch to remain in East Friesland. Duke Christian returned to fight in Saxony, where the Catholic military genius, Count Tilly soundly destroyed Christian’s army at Stadtholn. With this news, King James I of England, also father-in-law to Frederick V, convinced Frederick to forget his involvement in the war. Protestants were defeated, and Catholics were posturing, thus frightening other non-belligerent nations by 1625.


Watch the video: PolishOttoman War 162021